Chapter 6 Notes - February 4th 2008 Chapter 6 Behavioral...

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February 4 th , 2008 Chapter 6: Behavioral Views of Learning What is learning? o Process by which experience causes a permanent change in knowledge or behavior o Behaviorists believe that learning can be explained by attributing those permanent changes (observable behaviors) to external causes Two types of learning o Classical conditioning o Operant conditioning o Both result in changes of behavior, but the processes are different o Classical conditioning Involves reflexes (automatic responses to a stimuli) The focus is on antecedent events Based on the individual’s learning that 2 things (stimuli) go together o Ivan Pavlov Was studying digestion and nervous system in dogs Studying salivation in response to food (a reflex!!) Discovered classical conditioning by accident Dogs were salivating to other things in addition to food: the sound of attendant, food bowls, etc. Pavlov was initially irritated by this, but then intrigued and made this his life’s work! Pavlov’s procedure Attach a capsule to dog’s salivary gland Restraining harness Present food- dog salivates Sound tone-nothing
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Then began pairing the tone with good (tone first, then food, elicits salivation) Eventually the tone will produce salivation by itself Before training o Food salivation o Tone ???? During training/ conditioning o Tone food salivation After training/conditioning o Tone salivation o Definitions Neutral stimulus- stimulus that elicits no response Unconditioned stimulus (UCS)- a stimulus that automatically elicits a response without any prior learning or training having occurred Unconditioned response (UCR)- that response that occurs automatically to the UCS (reflex) Conditioned Stimulus (CS)- is a previously neutral stimulus, that by its pairing with the UCS, also eventually elicits a response Conditioned Response (CR)- that response that occurs to the conditioned stimulus o Pavlov’s Procedure CS UCS UCR CS CR CS (tone) UCS(food) UCR(salivation) CS(tone) CR(salivation) o Eye blink studies CS UCS UCR CS CR
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CS(tone) UCS (air puff) UCR (eye blink) CS(tone) CR(eye blink) John Watson o Born in 1878, professor johns Hopkins University married to a socialite. o Worked with Rosalie Raynor, a graduate student and research assistant o They had an affair and it created a huge scandal which resulted in a divorce and being fired from Johns Hopkins o He married Raynor and went to work for an advertising firm Watson and Raynor (1920) o Little Albert Used an 11 month old boy named Albert Let Albert pet a white rat The experimenter would then hit a steel bar with a hammer when Albert was reaching to pet the rat Watson and Raynor demonstrated that they could condition a phobia into a baby o Little Albert Procedure CS UCS UCR CS CR CS(rat) UCS(noise)
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