Chapter 7 Notes - March 3rd 2008 Chapter 7 Cognitive Views...

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March 3 rd , 2008 Chapter 7: Cognitive Views of Learning Cognitive Behavioral Focus on thoughts (internal and not observable) Observable Reinforcement seen as a kind of feedback Positive reinforcement strengthens behavior More emphasis on person Emphasis on environment Cognitive defined o Cognitive psychology and information processing theory evolved separately from behaviorism o Unlike behaviorism, which is one unified theory, cognitive psychology isn’t one theory. Rather its a conglomeration of many theories, each pertaining to a subcategory of behavior (i.e. perception, memory, etc.) o Cognitive theories emphasize the person more in the equation than the environment - B=E x P o Knowing or understanding how we (or kids in particular) process information and acquire new knowledge and skills is important for teaching o Teaching needs to take into account students’ information processing abilities and limitations o How is information absorbed by students? o How can teachers take advantage of this process so that students retain critical information?
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Attention Sensory perception Initial processing Working memory Short term memory Rehearsal/coding Long term memory retrieval forgotten forgotten Guidelines on gaining students’ attention o Use cues which suggest “this is important” Raise or lower voice Gestures Repetition Increase emotional content of material Use unusual, inconsistent, or surprising stimuli Telling students that “this is important” Working memory or short term memory o Information that a person attends to is then transferred from the sensory register to short term memory o Short term memory is the type of memory or storage system for holding a limited amount of information for a short time - i.e. up to 30 seconds in some cases.
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