Chemistry by Whitten, Atwood, Morrison Chapter 10 solutions

Chemistry by Whitten, Atwood, Morrison Chapter 10 solutions...

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87 Reactions in Aqueous Solutions I: Acids, Bases, and Salts 10 10-1 (a) strong electrolyte : is a substance that dissociates or ionizes completely in solution to give ions. The resulting solution is a good conductor of electricity. Examples (in water): any strong acid such as HCl, HNO 3 , H 2 SO 4 ; any strong base such as KOH, Ca(OH) 2 , LiOH; any quite soluble salt such as NaCl, CsI. (b) weak electrolyte : is a substance that dissociates or ionizes only partially in solution to give ions. The resulting solution conducts electricity only weakly. Examples (in water): weak acids such as CH 3 COOH, HF, HCN; sparingly soluble salts such as AgCl, BaSO 4 . (c) nonelectrolyte : is a substance that dissolves without forming ions, so that the resulting solution does not conduct electricity. Examples: acetone in water, benzene in hexane, urea in water, HCl in benzene. (d) strong acid : is an acid that ionizes essentially completely to form ions in solution. Examples: HCl, HNO 3 , HClO 4 . (e) strong base : is a base that is quite soluble in water and that dissociates essentially completely into its ions in solution. Examples: NaOH, RbOH, Ba(OH) 2 (f) weak acid : is an acid that ionizes only slightly into ions in solution. Examples: CH 3 COOH, HCN, HNO 2 (g) weak base : is a base that only very partially forms ions in solution. The common example is NH 3 . (h) insoluble base : is a compound that contains ionizable hydroxide ions, OH - , but which has a low solubility in water. Examples: Fe(OH) 3 , Zn(OH) 2 . 10-3 Aqueous solutions of strong electrolytes conduct electricity well because strong electrolytes dissolve and ionize or dissociate completely, or nearly completely, into ions in dilute aqueous solutions. Aqueous solutions of weak electrolytes conduct electricity poorly because weak electrolytes dissolve but are only slightly ionized or dissociated in dilute aqueous solutions. Aqueous solutions of nonelectrolytes do not conduct electricity because nonelectrolytes do not ionize or dissociate into ions when dissolved in aqueous solutions. 10-5 (a) Common strong acids include aqueous solutions of: HCl, hydrochloric; HBr, hydrobromic; HI, hydroiodic; HNO 3 , nitric; H 2 SO 4 , sulfuric; HClO 4 , perchloric; HClO 3 , chloric acid (b) Some common weak acids: CH 3 COOH, acetic; HF, hydrofluoric; H 2 SO 3 , sulfurous; HCN, hydrocyanic acid. Some other common weak acids are listed in Table 4-6. (c) Some common strong bases: LiOH, lithium hydroxide; NaOH, sodium hydroxide; KOH, potassium hydroxide; RbOH, rubidium hydroxide; CsOH, cesium hydroxide; Ca(OH) 2 , calcium hydroxide; Sr(OH) 2 , strontium hydroxide; Ba(OH) 2 , barium hydroxide (d) The most common weak base: NH 3 , ammonia
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88 (e) Some common soluble ionic salts: NaCl, sodium chloride; NH 4 NO 3 , ammonium nitrate; Ca(CH 3 COO) 2 , calcium acetate; Fe 2 (SO 4 ) 3 , iron(III) sulfate. For some generalizations, see the solubility guidelines in Section 4-2. (f)
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Chemistry by Whitten, Atwood, Morrison Chapter 10 solutions...

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