The statement is not a good one.
A mixture can be either heterogeneous or homogeneous. A
solution is a homogeneous mixture in which no settling occurs. Thus, a solution is only a particular
kind of mixture.
A solid-gas mixture or a liquid-gas mixture would be heterogeneous, and thus not be a true solution.
If the solvent-solute attractions were strong enough to overcome the solute-solute attractions, the
solute would become gaseous and no longer be a liquid or a solid, and we would have a gas-gas
refers to the process in which solute is converted to dissolved molecules or ions.
refers to the interactions of solvent molecules with solute particles. When the solvent is
water, we use the more specific term
Water molecules are strongly hydrogen bonded to one another, but are not strongly attracted to oil
(hydrocarbon) molecules. The energy required to overcome the favorable water-water attractions to
separate water molecules is too high for mixing to occur. Hydrocarbons are mostly nonpolar, and
water, which is polar, mixes with polar or ionic substances.
(a) low solubility; ionic solute, LiCl, in nonpolar solvent, C
ionic solute, CaCl
, in water, a quite polar covalent solvent. According to the
solubility guidelines (Section 4-2), most common chlorides are water-soluble.
nonpolar solute, C
, in a polar solvent (water)
(d) low solubility; polar solute, CHCl
, in nonpolar solvent, C
(e) high solubility;
nonpolar solute, C
, in nonpolar solvent, CCl
is a strong electrolyte;
(e) is a nonelectrolyte
Water can interact favorably with the polar — OH end of each alcohol molecule, but not with the
hydrocarbon end. The larger the hydrocarbon portion of the molecule, the less important the
attractions will be and the less miscible the liquids will be. Thus we predict that water solubility
would decrease in the order 1-propanol > 1-butanol > 1-pentanol
To determine whether or not an aqueous solution contains an electrolyte, one tests the solution with
some sort of conductivity device. The device may be as simple as a light bulb in circuit that is
interrupted by two electrodes. When the electrodes are inserted into the solution the electrolyte in
solution will complete the circuit and conduct electricity between the electrodes.
Henry’s Law is
For the values given,
is either expressed molarity of ethane or as
mole fraction of dissolved ethane :
3.31 x 10
5.0 x 10