General Chemistry by Whitten, Atwood, Morrison Chapter 14 solutions

General Chemistry by Whitten, Atwood, Morrison Chapter 14 solutions

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136 14 Solutions 14-1 The statement is not a good one. A mixture can be either heterogeneous or homogeneous. A solution is a homogeneous mixture in which no settling occurs. Thus, a solution is only a particular kind of mixture. 14-3 A solid-gas mixture or a liquid-gas mixture would be heterogeneous, and thus not be a true solution. If the solvent-solute attractions were strong enough to overcome the solute-solute attractions, the solute would become gaseous and no longer be a liquid or a solid, and we would have a gas-gas mixture. 14-5 Dissolution refers to the process in which solute is converted to dissolved molecules or ions. Solvation refers to the interactions of solvent molecules with solute particles. When the solvent is water, we use the more specific term hydration . 14-7 Water molecules are strongly hydrogen bonded to one another, but are not strongly attracted to oil (hydrocarbon) molecules. The energy required to overcome the favorable water-water attractions to separate water molecules is too high for mixing to occur. Hydrocarbons are mostly nonpolar, and water, which is polar, mixes with polar or ionic substances. 14-9 (a) low solubility; ionic solute, LiCl, in nonpolar solvent, C 8 H 18 (b) high solubility; ionic solute, CaCl 2 , in water, a quite polar covalent solvent. According to the solubility guidelines (Section 4-2), most common chlorides are water-soluble. (c) low solubility; nonpolar solute, C 8 H 18 , in a polar solvent (water) (d) low solubility; polar solute, CHCl 3 , in nonpolar solvent, C 6 H 14 (e) high solubility; nonpolar solute, C 8 H 18 , in nonpolar solvent, CCl 4 14-11 (b) is a strong electrolyte; (e) is a nonelectrolyte 14-13 Water can interact favorably with the polar — OH end of each alcohol molecule, but not with the hydrocarbon end. The larger the hydrocarbon portion of the molecule, the less important the attractions will be and the less miscible the liquids will be. Thus we predict that water solubility would decrease in the order 1-propanol > 1-butanol > 1-pentanol . 14-15 To determine whether or not an aqueous solution contains an electrolyte, one tests the solution with some sort of conductivity device. The device may be as simple as a light bulb in circuit that is interrupted by two electrodes. When the electrodes are inserted into the solution the electrolyte in solution will complete the circuit and conduct electricity between the electrodes. 14-17 Henry’s Law is C gas = k P gas . For the values given, C gas is either expressed molarity of ethane or as mole fraction of dissolved ethane : X ethane = k P ethane or X ethane = 3.31 x 10 -5 atm -1 ( 0.15 atm ) = 5.0 x 10 -6
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137 14-19 Recall that crystal lattice energies are negative. The magnitudes of crystal lattice energies generally increase with increasing ionic charge densities (increasing charges and decreasing sizes of ions). (a) LiF;
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This note was uploaded on 03/17/2009 for the course CHEM 1212 taught by Professor Suggs during the Spring '08 term at University of Georgia Athens.

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General Chemistry by Whitten, Atwood, Morrison Chapter 14 solutions

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