General Chemistry by Whitten, Atwood, Morrison Chapter 18 solutions

General Chemistry by Whitten, Atwood, Morrison Chapter 18 solutions

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195 Ionic Equilibrium I: Acids and Bases 18 18-1 (a) The names and formulas of the seven common strong acids were listed in Table 4-5, and their formulas appear in Table 18-1. HNO 3 nitric acid HCl hydrochloric acid HClO 4 perchloric acid HBr hydrobromic acid HClO 3 chloric acid HI hydroiodic acid H 2 SO 4 sulfuric acid (b) Names and formulas for five common weak bases appear in Table 18-6; additional ones are listed in Appendix G. NH 3 ammonia (CH 3 )NH 2 methylamine N 2 H 4 hydrazine (CH 3 ) 2 NH dimethylamine C 5 H 5 N pyridine (CH 3 ) 3 N trimethylamine (c) The common strong bases are listed in Table 4-7, and their formulas appear in Table 18-1. LiOH lithium hydroxide NaOH sodium hydroxide KOH potassium hydroxide Ca(OH) 2 calcium hydroxide RbOH rubidium hydroxide Sr(OH) 2 strontium hydroxide CsOH cesium hydroxide Ba(OH) 2 barium hydroxide (d) There are many soluble ionic salts that could be listed. For instance, the common compounds of the Group IA metals and of ammonium ion (NH 4 + ) are soluble ionic salts; the common nitrates (NO 3 ), acetates (CH 3 COO ), chlorates (ClO 3 ), and perchlorates (ClO 4 ) are water-soluble; most common ionic chlorides, bromides, and iodides are soluble in water; there are many other useful generalizations. Refer to the solubility rules, Section 4-2.5. 18-3 The strong electrolytes among those compounds listed are: Group IA hydroxides (except H), salts of Group IA metals, and HBr. Several of the other compounds are not considered to be strong electrolytes because they have low solubility. 18-5 The square brackets denote “concentration of” and imply that the concentration is measured in molarity (moles/L). 18-7 (a) Sr(OH) 2 is a strong base, so it is 100% dissociated. Sr(OH) 2 (aq) Sr 2+ (aq) + 2OH (aq) 0.0105 M 0.0105 M 2(0.0105) M So [Sr 2+ ] = 0.0105 M and [OH - ] = 0.0210 M (b) HClO 3 is a strong acid, so it is 100% ionized. HClO 3 (aq) + H 2 O( l ) H 3 O + (aq) + ClO 3 (aq) 0.0105 M 0.0105 M 0.0105 M So [H 3 O + ] = 0.0105 M and [ClO 3 ] = 0.0105 M
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196 (c) K 2 SO 4 is a soluble ionic compound, so it is 100% dissociated. K 2 SO 4 (aq) SO 4 2 (aq) + 2K + (aq) 0.0105 M 0.0105 M 2(0.0105) M So [K + ] = 0.0210 M and [SO 4 2 ] = 0.0105 M 18-9 (a) M of Al 2 (SO 4 ) 3 = 1.05 g Al 2 (SO 4 ) 3 0.725 L soln x 1 mol 342.3 g Al 2 (SO 4 ) 3 = 4.23 x 10 3 M Al 2 (SO 4 ) 3 Al 2 (SO 4 ) 3 is a soluble ionic compound, so it is 100% dissociated. Al 2 (SO 4 ) 3 (aq) 2Al 3+ (aq) + 3SO 4 2 (aq) 0.00423 M 2(0.00423) M 3(0.00423) M So [Al 3+ ] = 0.00846 M and [SO 4 2 ] = 0.0127 M (b) M of CaCl 2 = 26.7 g CaCl 2 ·6H 2 O 5.00 L soln x 1 mol CaCl 2 ·6H 2 O 219.0 g CaCl 2 ·6H 2 O x 1 mol CaCl 2 1 mol CaCl 2 ·6H 2 O = 0.0244 M CaCl 2 CaCl 2 is a soluble ionic compound, so it is 100% dissociated. CaCl 2 (aq) Ca 2+ (aq) + 2Cl (aq) 0.0244 M 0.0244 M 2(0.0244) M So [Ca 2+ ] = 0.0244 M and [Cl ] = 0.0488 M (c) M of HBr = 13.8 g HBr 0.675 L soln x 1 mol HBr 80.9 g HBr = 0.253 M HBr HBr is a strong acid, so it is 100 % ionized. HBr(aq) + H 2 O( l ) H 3 O + (aq) + Br (aq) 0.253 M 0.253 M 0.253 M So [H 3 O + ] = 0.253 M and [Br ] = 0.253 M 18-11 K w =[ H 3 O + ] [OH ] [ H 3 O + ] = K w /[OH ] Hence there is a reciprocal relationship - as [OH ] increases [ H 3 O + ] decreases and vice versa.
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