Chapter 10- Reactions in Aqueous Solutions

Chapter 10- Reactions in Aqueous Solutions - Chapter 10:...

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Chapter 10: Reactions in Aqueous Solutions I—Acids, Bases, and Salts
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Properties of Aqueous Solutions of Acids and Bases (10-1) Aqueous acidic solutions have the following properties: 1. They have a sour taste. 2. They react with metals to generate hydrogen, H 2(g) . 3. They react with metal oxides and hydroxides to form salts and water. 4. They react with salts of weaker acids to form the weaker acid and the salt of the stronger acid. 5. Acidic aqueous solutions conduct electricity.
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Properties of Aqueous Solutions of Acids and Bases (10-1) Aqueous basic solutions have the following properties: 1. They have a bitter taste. 2. They have a slippery feeling. 3. They react with acids to form salts and water. 4. Aqueous basic solutions conduct electricity.
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The Arrhenius Theory (10-2) • The very first theory of acids and bases was developed by Svante Arrhenius . •A n Arrhenius acid is a substance that contains hydrogen and produces H + (a proton ) in aqueous solution. •A n Arrhenius base is a substance that contains the hydroxyl group (OH) and produces hydroxide ions (OH - ) in aqueous solution.
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The Arrhenius Theory (10-2) • Examples of Arrhenius acids: • Review your list of seven strong acids HCOOH (aq) H aq () + + COOH aq () - () () - aq aq (aq) Cl H HCl + +
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The Arrhenius Theory (10-2) • Examples of Arrhenius bases • Review your list of eight strong bases () () - aq aq OH Na NaOH + + (aq) - 2OH (aq) 2 Ca 2 Ca(OH) + +
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The Arrhenius Theory (10-2) • According to the Arrhenius theory, neutralization occurs when a proton (H + ) combines with a hydroxide ion (OH - ) to form water molecules. H + ( aq ) + OH - ( aq ) -> H 2 O ( l )
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The Arrhenius Theory (10-2) • Acid-base reactions are neutralization reactions. – The H + of the acids and the OH - of the base neutralize one another. • Strong acid – strong base reactions typically all have the same total ionic equation: H + ( aq ) + OH - ( aq ) -> H 2 O ( l )
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The Arrhenius Theory (10-2) • Write the total and net ionic equations for the reactions of: – Hydrochloric acid with barium hydroxide – Nitric acid with lithium hydroxide
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The Arrhenius Theory (10-2) • The reaction of sulfuric acid with barium hydroxide is an exception.
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The Hydronium Ion (10-3) • Protons (H + ) cannot exist in aqueous solution, even though we will frequently refer to this. • In actuality, the H + ion is always immediately surrounded by several water molecule to form H(H 2 O) n + where n is a small integer. • For the sake of simplicity, scientists usually just write this as H 3 O + , the hydronium ion .
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• What about ammonia? What is its formula? Is it an acid or a base? The Bronsted-Lowry Theory (10-4)
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• How can ammonia be a base if it doesn’t contain the hydroxyl group? • It turns out that ammonia
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This note was uploaded on 03/17/2009 for the course CHEM 1212 taught by Professor Suggs during the Spring '08 term at University of Georgia Athens.

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Chapter 10- Reactions in Aqueous Solutions - Chapter 10:...

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