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Week 5-Fluid and Electrolytes_Fall_2022.pptx - FLUID AND...

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FLUID AND ELECTROLYTESChapter 16 (10thed)
HOMEOSTASISImportant role played by body fluids andelectrolytesHomeostasis is the body’s stable internalenvironmentDiseases and their treatments can affect fluid andelectrolyte balance
WATER CONTENT IN THE BODYWater accounts for about 60% of body weight inadultsVaries with body mass, gender, and ageFluid percentage increases with lean body mass anddecreases with increased body fatWomen have a lower percentage of body water d/tless lean body mass than menOlder adults have less body mass, resulting bodywater content averages 45-50% of body weight
BODY FLUID COMPARTMENTSIntracellular (ICF)Contains 2/3 of thebody's waterMakes up +/- 40% ofadult body weightExtracellular (ECF)Three compartmentsInterstitial - the spacebetween cells 2/3 of bodywaterIntravascular - (plasma orcomponents) 1/3 of bodywaterTranscellular - 1L
FLUID GAIN OR LOSS1L of water weighs 2.2 pounds (1 kg)Body weight change, especially sudden, is anexcellent indicator of overall fluid volume loss orgainAn adult patient who is fasting may lose 1-2 lbs/day(2.2 to 4.4kg)Weight loss exceeding this 1-2 lb/day loss, is likelyd/t loss of body fluid
ELECTROLYTESElectrolytes are substances whose moleculesdissociate, or split, into ions when placed in waterIons are electrically charged particlesCations are positively charged ionsAnions are negatively charged ionsMost proteins bear a negative charge and areclassified as anions
FLUID COMPOSITIONICF -The most prevalent cation is potassium, with smallamounts of magnesium and sodiumThe most prevalent anion is phosphate, with someprotein and small amount of bicarbonate.ECF -The main cation is sodium, with small amounts ofpotassium, calcium, and magnesiumThe primary ECF anion is chloride, with small amountsof bicarbonate, sulfate, and phosphate anions.
MECHANISMS CONTROLLINGFLUID & ELECTROLYTEMOVEMENTDiffusionMovement of moleculesfrom high concentrationto low concentrationNet movement ofmolecules stops whenconcentrations are equalin both areasOccurs in liquids, gases,and solidsSimple diffusion requiresno external energyFacilitated DiffusionInvolves the use of aprotein carrier in the cellmembraneProtein carrier combineswith a molecule,especially one too largeto pass easily through thecell membrane, andassists in moving themolecule across themembrane from high tolow concentrationIs passive and requires noenergyActive transportProcess where moleculesmove against thecentration gradientExternal energy isrequired
FLUID MOVEMENT MECHANISMSOsmotic PressureOsmolarity and osmolalitymeasure the concentration ofa solute in solution.Osmolality indicates the waterbalance in the body.Oncotic PressureThe osmotic pressure exertedby colloids (i.e., albumin) inthe vascular system.

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Term
Fall
Professor
NoProfessor
Tags
Sodium, Diuretic, Calcium metabolism, Hypomagnesemia

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