bassfinal - 5 July 2007 Professor Bruce Bassoff ENG...

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5 July 2007 Professor Bruce Bassoff ENG 4224-100 Final 1. In Between the Acts , Mrs. Swithin asks Bart, “What’s the origin of that? Touch wood…Antaeus, didn’t he touch earth?”(p.24) Bart replies, “Touch wood; touch earth; Antaueus…Lemprière would settle it; or the Encyclopedia” (p.25). Bart is referring to Lemprière’s Classical Dictionary . Antaeus is a mythical creature that gains strength from contact with the earth and Antaeus can be found in Lemprière’s Classical Dictionary . The dictionary contains many mythological stories that are commonly referred to in the novel including the story of Philomela, Procne, Tereus, and Itylus. Bart murmurs part of Charles Swinburne’s poem “Itylus,” to his sister Lucy, “Swallow, my sister, O sister swallow…”(p.116). The poem changes from the classical version of Philomela, Procne, Tereus, and Itylus and is from the perspective of Philomela. Philomela represents the voice of a woman moralizing about female guilt. The narrative voice of the poem mourns what happens to Itylus rather than the rape of Philomela or the loss of Philomela’s voice. Lucy is doubled in the position of Procne because she is victimized. The poem is written from a patriarchal perspective and Lucy is also stuck in a patriarchal system of thinking herself. For Woolf, the swallow represents the avenger of rape and this is also a pervasive theme in the novel. The poem is indicative of the incestual relations taking place between Bart and Lucy. Woolf comments on the injustices of the incestual relationships taking place because she too was a victim of incest in her family.
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2. In 1984 , Winston and O’Brien involve themselves in an intimate game of power. Both Winston and O’Brien’s roles are integral for the game to continue. O’Brien needs Winston in order to have a worthy opponent in his game of power. With power as the ideology of the Party, it is necessary to cultivate opponents like Winston so the power can be exercised over the opponent. Winston seeks the recognition of O’Brien because he embodies the masculinity of Big Brother and of the inner party members. Winston idolizes O’Brien’s masculine qualities. Therefore, the two men are dependent upon each other’s recognition. The recognition both men require is representative of Hagel’s theory that people desire recognition more than they desire material goods. When O’Brien is torturing Winston, he asks, “Can you think of a single degradation that has not happened to you?” Winston replies, “I have not betrayed Julia” (p.283). If Winston did not answer the question or just agreed, he would let O’Brien win the game and Winston would not pose as a very good opponent for O’Brien. If Winston didn’t resist against O’Brien the game would end, but Winston cannot resist playing the game with O’Brien. Instead
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bassfinal - 5 July 2007 Professor Bruce Bassoff ENG...

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