Chapter 8 - Chapter 8 Group Processes Chapter 8 Collective...

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Chapter 8- Group Processes  15/10/2007 08:40:00 Chapter 8 Collective Processes Collectives- people engaged in common activities but with minimal direct interaction. o Example: 1) Lecture- the bigger the class the more closely it resembles a collective. 2) Movie theatre 3) Sporting events Think long term interaction. Interactive groups- members have extensive interactions with one another. o Example: 1) People you live with 2) The actual sports team. 3) Colleagues. People behave different when alone and with other people. Presence of others energize behavior. Sometimes it enhances performance while other times it can impair performance. Social Facilitation Concludes the presence of others enhances performance on easy tasks and impairs performance on difficult tasks. Zajonc (there is evidence)- came up with this theory. Believes that social facilitation works because arousal you experience in presence of good increases the likelihood of what your dominant response is. o Argues that social facilitation is: 1) Social in nature. It’s about the presence of other who are like you- con specific (other people if you’re a person, dogs if you’re a dog). 2) The mere presence of others is sufficient to create the effect. o Based on these two premises others have challenged Zajonc. o Issues based on mere presence of others: Other researchers have suggested that mere presence is not sufficient. Evaluation Apprehension- Presence of individual who can potentially evaluate you is what affects your performance. Think classic study with blind folded confederates and non- blind folded confederates who ca watch and evaluate performance. Blind folded people had no impact on performance compared to when alone.
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Distraction- Conflict Theory : Criticizes idea of social nature in social facilitation Distraction of anything that can distract you will affect your performance (ex: noise, visual distraction, etc. Does not need to be another person- just needs to divide your attention.) Evidence that during an easy task and there’s a distraction performance will be enhanced while a hard task is deferred. Social Loafing o Group-produced reduction in individual output on easy tasks where contributions are pooled. Example: When everyone is pulling on a rope. Assigned reading regarding issues concerning social loafing- with the cheering and clapping alone and while in group. o Social loafing can be eliminated when group members believe: 1) That individual contributions can be identified. 2) The task is important. 3) if their efforts are necessary for success (remember Jigsaw classroom and conflict hypothesis.) 4) If the groups is small and/or cohesive. 5) If group expects punishment for poor performance.
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This note was uploaded on 04/29/2008 for the course PSYC 228 taught by Professor Rourke during the Fall '07 term at Binghamton.

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Chapter 8 - Chapter 8 Group Processes Chapter 8 Collective...

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