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Unformatted text preview: Thursday, August 28, 2008 9:33 AM Feudal Society - till 1450 o Monarch was supported by dukes, earls, noble (each of these had knights below them who received land and control of the people on the land in order to protect them - eventually ceases to be protection and becomes political) o Controlled the localities in which they resided o Serfdom ended in 1500's because of the Black plague o Mobility could really only be bought by buying a title (must be very wealthy and important in order for a title and land to be inferred upon you - you can marry into it) Little Ice Age (1350-1850) o Worst between 1560-1650 o Winters longer, colder, and snow - warmer seasons dramatically shorter 1400-1660: constant fight between centralizing monarchs I. 1550-1660: Instability and Uncertainty a. Society i. Divided into estates or orders (stande = caste) that carried within them legal status (land owning was a sign of status) 1. Aristocracy - people who own the land 2% 2. Bourgeoisie (middle class) - diverse and range from rich to poor (wealth gap within) 3% 3. Peasantry - people who work the land (hit hard by inflation) 95% a. Land they're working barely fertile, produces just enough to feed them and their families, rarely enough to sell at market b. Food is the economic cap which leads to people becoming ill and weak, then population plummets (death rate = 50% particularly amongst infants - true until 1750) c. After drop remains static until 1750 b. Economy - inflation introduced in Europe c. Politics - struggled against aristocracy as to who would be supreme politically in society d. 30 year war: 1618 - 1648 i. Destruction is unprecedented (canons, rifles , destructive weapons - technology). ii. Renegade armies destroying land, stealing food, killing peasants iii. Scares all people in a position to do anything, kills so many people , these people realize that this must end and never happen again. Approx. 25% of population has been killed iv. Peace of Westphalia - group of political leaders come together and made peace, conduct diplomacy and military campaigns differently in the future. "We need rules." 1. Balance of power - international agreement. Rules of behavior and diplomacy 2. Begins to create stability II. 1660: who has authority has been resolved a. Accusations of witchcraft III. 1600-1660: every place with a monarch will have a power struggle with religion which will be wrapped up in that IV....
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- Fall '07