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EPHYS EXAM REVIEW SHEET Vocabulary ; Homeostasis; tendency of the body to maintain a stable internal environment for cells by narrowly regulating critical variables (pH, O2, tension, concentration of glucose, osmolarity, etc.) Energy; ability to do work; mechanical, chemical, cellular, osmotic, etc. Energy in the body needs to be converted from glycogen into energy of ATP. Work = Force X Distance Overload Principle; you must continually overload a system and then it adapts. Stress, response (acute), adapt (chronic) Principle of Specificity; only the body part, tissue type, that is stressed will adapt. Metabolism; sum of all transformations of energy and matter occurring within an organism. (all anabolic and catabolic chemical reactions that occur in living organisms in order to maintain life .) Foodstuffs + O2 ATP + Heat Calorie; energy/heat needed to increase 1 kilogram of water 1 degree Celsius. Direct Calorimetry; estimate an organism’s metabolic rate by estimated the rate of heat production. You can do this by measuring the heat production. This is very expensive and not practical. If you try to exercise in it, it will confound heat of person exercising! In Lavoisier’s calorimeter of 1780 the animal’s body heat would melt the ice and knowing that 80 kcal of heat melts 1000 grams of ice, he measured the amount of water formed to estimate the heat produced! Indirect Calorimetry; This is based on measuring the Oxygen consumption to support biological oxidations instead of measuring the heat produced. Can be closed or open circuit. Closed = person is breathing in fixed container (respirometer) with fixed, no exchange with outside air. Drawbacks; not enough O2 for exercise studies cuz need large volume of O2. Open = inspired air from the outside and Douglas bag to collect expired air. Using Vmax machine to measure concentration of oxygen and carbon dioxide.
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Bioenergetics; designate the study of energy transformations in living organisms. Basically, taking potential energy and turning it into kinetic energy. 1st Law of Thermodynamics; The total energy of the universe is constant. The increase in the internal energy of a system is equal to the amount of energy added by heating the system, minus the amount lost as a result of the work done by the system on its surroundings. When energy demands go up, cannot make new energy but CONVERT energy. Anabolic; UPHILL, ENDERGONIC (energy into system) ANA UP ENDER (positive free energy, G) (above 1.0 Keq) Catabolic; DOWNHILL, EXERGONIC CAT DOWN EXER (negative free energy, G) (above 1.0 Keq) Free Energy; Delta G, is the energy available or free to do work! We can calculate this!!! Delta E = Delta G + T (Delta S) S = entropy (unavailable, negative) G = free energy Entropy; unavailable energy to do work. Second Law of Thermodynamics;
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