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Chap%206%20Hair - Chapter 6 Descriptive and Causal Research...

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Unformatted text preview: Chapter 6: Descriptive and Causal Research Designs Relationship of Research Types Problem Exploratory Research Possible Causes Probable Causes Descriptive Research Causal Research Descriptive Research (separate outline for experimental research) • Types • Advantages/Disadvantages • Total Survey Error – Sampling Error – Nonsampling Error • Nonresponse error • Response error Descriptive Research • Most Common Type is Survey Research, i.e., asking questions (other forms are observational, e.g., scanner, internet tracking data – addressed last chapter ) • Purpose – To describe the characteristics of a population, count the frequency with which something occurs (e.g., frequencies distribution) – To assess the relationship between variables (e.g., crosstabs, correlations) – To make specific predictions (e.g., regression) Types of Survey Research Methods Person- administered Telephone- administered Self- administered Usage Rates for Survey Methods • Internet 36.8% • CATI 25.3% • Hybrid 12.0% • Face-to-face intercepts 11.5% • Mail 3.3% • Other 4.1% Descriptive Research • Types • Advantages/Disadvantages • Total Survey Error – Sampling Error – Nonsampling Error • Nonresponse error • Response error Advantages/Disadvantages of Survey Research Design Advantages • Accommodates large sample sizes (if needed) • Generalizable to target population (can be) • Easy to administer and record answers • Facilitates advanced statistical analysis Disadvantages • Questions that accurately measure variables can be difficult to develop • In-depth data difficult to obtain • Low response rates ALL SURVEYS CONTAIN ERROR!!! Descriptive Research • Types • Advantages/Disadvantages • Total Survey Error – Sampling Error – Nonsampling Error • Nonresponse error • Response error Total Survey Error • reflects the difference between the population's true mean value (an unknown) on the characteristic of interest and the mean observed value obtained from a sample of respondents • Total Survey Error = random sampling error (not a “mistake” as stated on p. 105) + nonsampling error (which may be random or nonrandom, i.e., systematic) Total Survey Error When generalizing to Operational Population Total Survey Error = Sampling Error (Random) + Nonsampling Error (Random and Nonrandom ) Population μ Sampling error Nonsampling error Sample X T _ X o _ X T _ = “true” sample mean X o _ = Observed (measured) sample mean For example, if a population mean income was $22,000 and we selected a sample that had a true income of $23,600, yet we measured it as $24,100, then the total survey error would equal $2,100 ($1600 due to sampling error and $500 due to nonsampling error). Operational Population (Sampling Frame Error) μ Sampling error Nonsampling error Sample X T _ X o _ X T _ = “true” sample mean X o _ = Observed (measured) sample mean For example, if a population mean income was $22,000 and we selected a sample that had a true income of...
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This note was uploaded on 03/18/2009 for the course MKTG 3350 taught by Professor Engel,stev during the Fall '08 term at Colorado.

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Chap%206%20Hair - Chapter 6 Descriptive and Causal Research...

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