PT midterm study guide

PT midterm study guide - PLATO...

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STUDY GUIDE—PSCI 2004 1 st MIDTERM PLATO The charges against Socrates: - Old Charges: corrupting the youth, not believing in the state’s gods but in other new divinities - New Charges: making weaker argument the stronger, making inquiries into heaven and hell What is “virtue” according to Socrates/Plato? - Virtue to Socrates/Plato is that which allows something to perform its function, achieve its goal, and realize its characteristic excellence - Human virtues are courage, moderation, justice, wisdom The Socratic view of the relationship between virtue, knowledge and crafts. - Virtue can be seen as a “techne” or a craft/skill because virtue seems to require knowledge. You cannot be virtuous until you know what virtue is, and once you have this knowledge, you will be virtuous, for one does not do wrong voluntarily. - Knowledge = Technical knowledge = moral virtue The details of Socrates’ disobedience to various Athenian governments (p 39). - When sentenced by the 30 to bring Leon from Salamis, Socrates disobeys and returns home instead. - He refuses to participate in the democracy throughout his life. - Says he would disobey a legal order to give up philosophy The relationship between the concepts of power, authority and
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obligation. - Authority is a right where as obligation is a duty, we consent to authority. - The elements of the problem of political obligation. - Gratitude: we shouldn’t be grateful unless we are really benefited, has Athens benefited Socrates? - Is disobedience really acting against the best interest of the state? - Contagion argument: one act of disobedience will cause many others. The consent and gratitude accounts of political obligation: strengths and weaknesses, especially of the latter, e.g., the parent/polis analogy. - We tacitly consent to obey by living in the state and raising children there. He received these benefits w/out really accepting them. - The polis acted like a parent to Socrates, a parent makes sacrifices for their child and once grown up a child should not act against their parents fundamental interests - A parent does not always act in the best interests of their child, if his conviction was unjust, why must he obey the law? Strategies for reconciling the Apology and Crito. - You can argue your point, but that’s your only chance. Persuade or obey. - Its better to suffer injustice than to be unjust **** The pros and cons of the craft analogy discussed in Book 1 of the Republic - Craft analogy: virtue as a “techne,” doctors/captains do things for the better of their objects/subjects, they work for of
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their subject - Need justice that’s not just a means to an end (not just extrinsic). Need an intrinsic justice, justice for the sake of being just. Craftsmen develop a skill and in doing it well develop a virtue. Rulers also should be like craftsmen, they
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This test prep was uploaded on 03/18/2009 for the course PSCI 2004 taught by Professor Vanderheiden during the Fall '08 term at Colorado.

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PT midterm study guide - PLATO...

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