Survey of Western Political Though Final Exam Review Guide Fall 2007

Survey of Western Political Though Final Exam Review Guide Fall 2007

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Survey of Western Political Though Final Exam Review Guide Fall 2007 MARX What does Marx mean by each of the following? Give Examples. - Superstructure: the ideology of society 1. Organized religion 2. Philosophy 3. Science 4. Political Institutions - Modes/Relations of production : The social relations that govern forces of production 1. Property relations 2. Who owns what 3. Who can hire whom - Forces/Powers of Production : The Means of Production + labor (utilized within a system that governs their use) 1. Technology 2. Raw Materials 3. Labor power - Means of Production : The physical tools, technology, resources, etc. that enter into the process of production; items used by labor 1. Tools 2. Technology Using the terms above, give a brief explanation of Marx’s general theory of history: - History has been a series of class struggles with oppressors and the oppressed. - Feudalism guilds (craftsmen) capitalism (our epoch) - Human beings do what their long-term interests demand; their fundamental interest is to overcome scarcity by developing production forces. - Existing technology demands a certain division of labor and a certain organization of the relations of production. - “The hand-mill requires feudalism, the steam mill requires
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capitalism.” Technology outgrows the division of labor and those who own the relations of production must resist change. - History has been a series of class struggles, oppressors and the oppressed. The means of production are owned and controlled by a few. This forces men, without will, into relations of production to protect their fundamental interest of overcoming scarcity. These relations of production form the economic and political structures of the social superstructure. We start using machines and start to loose the exact benefits from it. - Human beings do what they must to protect their fundamental interest of overcoming scarcity. Existing technologies bring a division of labor and relations of production form because the means of production are owned by few. The modes of production form the ideologies/superstructures. The struggle ends with communism. Marx was a great critic of capitalism, but why was he also one of its greatest admirers? - Capitalism generated the growth of technology and productivity that helped spread knowledge. - While it had negative social conflicts/polarization, it was better than any other system before it. How does the “labor theory of surplus value” supposedly explain why capitalism is inherently exploitive? - Labor Theory of Surplus Value: Subtract labor necessary to keep laborer alive from the labor power actually extracted and you get a surplus value; which is the source of profit and the exploitation of the worker. - Laborer is paid for the amount of labor and not for the amount of value.
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