Campaigns and Elections Final Exam Study Guide

Campaigns and Elections Final Exam Study Guide - Campaigns...

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Campaigns and Elections Final Exam Study Guide 2008 Election Results Obama 364 to McCain 174 Surprising trends in exit polls: - White vote: McCain 55% Obama 43% vs. Bush 58% Kerry 41% - Black vote: McCain 4% Obama 95% vs. Bush 11% Kerry 88% - Florida Latino voters: 57% Obama - 18-29 year olds: Obama 66% McCain 32% vs. Kerry 54% Bush 45% - 65+: Obama 53% McCain 45% vs. Bush 54% kerry 46% - Income of 200,000+: Obama 52% McCain 46% vs. Bush 63% Kerry 35% - 60% of Moderates voted for Obama, 78% of Conservatives voted for McCain - 69% of First-time voters went for Obama - This year, only 22% of the nation’s counties voted more Republican, while the rest of the nation shifted more democratic Campaign Finance Federal Election Campaign Act of 1971(FECA): - Repeals Federal Corrupt Practices Act - Mandates public financial disclosure - Imposes ceiling on candidate self-contributions - Imposes ceilings on media advertising - Creates system of public financing for presidential elections - Creates FEC - Provided for partial public funding of presidential campaigns and
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required full public reporting & strict limits on all contributions and expenditures in federal elections - With rise of national media in campaigns, pressure built to regulate campaign finance - Amended in 1979 to allow party organizations to engage in unlimited campaign spending for state and local party building and mobilization of voters. Soft Money: - Money that is not subject to FECA regulation - Money spent by groups or individuals independent of candidates or for approved FECA reasons - Allows parties and interest groups in elections than was permitted under federal regulations as long as it was not expressly used to advocate a particular candidate in a particular election Hard Money: - Money that is subject to FECA regulation - Money spent by the candidates and parties to promote a candidate in a particular election Bipartisan Campaign Reform Act of 2002 (BCRA or McCain-Feingold Act): - Bans soft money for federal elections - Increases individual contribution limits to 2000 - Bans “issue ads” - Bans contributions from minors - 2007 SC rolls back electioneering ad provision that limits corp/union funds - Limits the size of contributions and requires full public disclosure of the sources of moneys that go directly to candidates as well as the soft money previously spent by parties - Increased limits set by FECA Policy/Electorally Induced Contributions: - Like the decision to vote, related to candidate proximity - One candidate only - Because of legal restrictions, very unlikely to be pivotal - Contributions are more expressive and consumptive
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Service-Induced Contributions: - Aimed at receiving some kind of favor in return - Policy consideration or access - When to give: C < P x s (C=cost, P= probability candidate is elected, s= value of favor) Varieties of Services: - Votes on legislation - Priorities (champion, supporter, etc.) - Access/time - Influence (bureaucratic pressure) - Must be the case that the recipient (lawmaker) is behaving in ways she
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Campaigns and Elections Final Exam Study Guide - Campaigns...

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