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Unformatted text preview: CHAPTER 4, GREEK ROOTS etumos (Greek): real, true etumon: true or real sense of a word. English acquired this word in the 16 th century. Grammarians of the past studied only the roots of words, modern ones study also the history. Etymology: the scientific study of the origin, history and changing meaning of words. The oldest source of etymology is Kratylos (Plato- 5 th cent BC) three people take part in the debate: Kratylos, Hermogens, Socrates. Kratylos wants to learn the nature of language. He thinks every concept, object may have one word and this word comes from the nature. The meaning is inherent in the meaning of the word. Hermogens defends the opposite view, he claims that there is a difference between phonetic structure and meaning. He thinks words come from social conventions, words are arbitrary. One concept may be named by many words, it is people who decide and prefer. (Saussure said this in the 20 th century) Kratylos and Hermogens consult Socrates. He suggests looking at the oldest form of words: their etymology. However, his etymological explanations are incorrect. (Greeks didnt study other languages) Stoics (group of philosophers) take interest in this nature convention debate. Its true that theres not an apparent relationship between the forms and meanings of words. If we go back to etymon, we can observe a regular order they brought the science of etymology. (stoicism: Greek school of philosophy holding that all things, properties, relations etc. are governed by unvarying natural laws)-agog- (lead, leader) pedagogy: pad: child, pedagogue: one who leads children / teacher (archaic) pedagogy: deals with teaching methodology synagogue: syn: together bring together, assembly (Greek) Greek translators of the Old Testament introduced this word. demagogue: demos: people leader of people, one who provokes popular feelings to gain political power, one who stirs people up eg: When democratic people get corrupt, demagogues gain power.-anthrop- (man, mankind) philanthropy: phil: love +anthrop: people love of people X misanthropy anthropology: studies human culture misanthropy: one who hates people (insandan kaan)-arch- ( a- ancient b- chief) archaic (French): related to primitive times eg. archaic meaning arch (Greek): being in the first place a) ancient b) ruler archaism: word or expression not used any longer Artists deliberately use archaism to create certain effects. archaeology: study of the ancient monarch: mono: one + arch one ruler A monarch doesnt have to be elected. eg constitutional monarchy in Britain diarchy: two rulers archbishop: bishop of the highest rank (ba psikopos) 1 patriarch: chief father matriarch: female leader of a tribe anarchy: no leader oligarchy: few + ruler political power lies in the hands of a few people archetype: ancient type (modern anthropology) Frazer (English anthropologist) in his book...
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- Spring '09
- Paradise Lost