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Unformatted text preview: CHAPTER 4, GREEK ROOTS etumos (Greek): real, true etumon: true or real sense of a word. English acquired this word in the 16 th century. Grammarians of the past studied only the roots of words, modern ones study also the history. Etymology: the scientific study of the origin, history and changing meaning of words. The oldest source of etymology is Kratylos (Plato- 5 th cent BC) three people take part in the debate: Kratylos, Hermogens, Socrates. Kratylos wants to learn the nature of language. He thinks every concept, object may have one word and this word comes from the nature. The meaning is inherent in the meaning of the word. Hermogens defends the opposite view, he claims that there is a difference between phonetic structure and meaning. He thinks words come from social conventions, words are arbitrary. One concept may be named by many words, it is people who decide and prefer. (Saussure said this in the 20 th century) Kratylos and Hermogens consult Socrates. He suggests looking at the oldest form of words: their etymology. However, his etymological explanations are incorrect. (Greeks didn’t study other languages) Stoics (group of philosophers) take interest in this nature – convention debate. ‘It’s true that there’s not an apparent relationship between the forms and meanings of words. If we go back to etymon, we can observe a regular order’ they brought the science of etymology. (stoicism: Greek school of philosophy holding that all things, properties, relations etc. are governed by unvarying natural laws)-agog- (lead, leader) • pedagogy: pad: child, pedagogue: one who leads children / teacher (archaic) • pedagogy: deals with teaching methodology • synagogue: syn: together bring together, assembly (Greek) Greek translators of the Old Testament introduced this word. • demagogue: demos: people leader of people, one who provokes popular feelings to gain political power, one who stirs people up eg: When democratic people get corrupt, demagogues gain power.-anthrop- (man, mankind) • philanthropy: phil: love +anthrop: people love of people X misanthropy • anthropology: studies human culture • misanthropy: one who hates people (insandan kaçan)-arch- ( a- ancient b- chief) • archaic (French): related to primitive times eg. archaic meaning • arch (Greek): being in the first place a) ancient b) ruler • archaism: word or expression not used any longer Artists deliberately use archaism to create certain effects. • archaeology: study of the ancient • monarch: mono: one + arch one ruler A monarch doesn’t have to be elected. eg constitutional monarchy in Britain • diarchy: two rulers • archbishop: bishop of the highest rank (baş psikopos) 1 • patriarch: chief father • matriarch: female leader of a tribe • anarchy: no leader • oligarchy: few + ruler political power lies in the hands of a few people • archetype: ancient type (modern anthropology) Frazer (English anthropologist) in his book...
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This note was uploaded on 03/17/2009 for the course TR 102 taught by Professor Aksoy during the Spring '09 term at Boğaziçi University.
- Spring '09
- Paradise Lost