Geo-Sci review sheet - Test 2 - Geo-Sci 105 Exam 2 Lecture...

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HORI ZONTAL SEI SMOGRAPH VERTI CAL SEISMOGRAPH 50 Years Earlier Just Before Earthquake After the Earthquake LOW HIGH Geo-Sci 105: Exam 2 Lecture 9: Earthquakes - Earthquake Stats per year o Earthquakes = 1 million o Earthquakes that produce noticeable effects = 3,000 E.g. tremors, ground shaking o Earthquakes that cause major damage and destruction = 20 o Average amount of deaths caused by earthquakes = 10,000 - Earthquake Damage o Slumping buildings o Collapsed apartments o Wrecked factories o Disrupted railways - Historical Ideas that Cause Earthquakes o Mythical beasts or the wrath of Gods o Aristotle thought they were cause by underground winds somehow related to - The Great Lisbon Earthquake o 1755 – Portugal o 3 Typical Components Quakes or Shaking Tsunami or tidal waves Fires o 60,000 people were killed o Had a profound effect on the intellectual thought of the time (Age of Reason) 1
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o Difficult to reconcile with the prevailing ideas of the time Man was capable of discovering all the laws of the universe These laws were divinely ordered, harmonious and good - Voltaire o French satirist o Observed that apparent contradiction between philosophy and the reality in the novel “Candide” o “The heirs of the dead will benefit financially; the building trade will enjoy a boom. Private misfortune must not be overrated. These poor people in their death agonies, and the worms about to devour them, are playing their proper and appointed part in God’s master plan.” - Development of Scientific Ideas o Some scientists in the 1700s attributed earthquakes in some way to recently discovered electricity o Famous Scientists John Winthrop (1755) - Harvard astronomer - “Earthquakes are waves within the earth” - Based observations on moving bricks in his chimney during the 1755 Boston EQ John Mitchell (1760) - Cambridge Astronomer - Said earthquakes were caused by waves which were caused by shifting rocks deep within the earth (movement caused by fire and steam) - Worked on equation to calculate the location of an earthquake (epicenter) Robert Mallet (1857) - Irish Engineer 2
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- Mapped Earthquake Zones around the Mediterranean - Produced contour maps of equal devastation - Suggested that EQs are elastic waves of compression caused by the sudden flexing or fracturing of the earth’s crust - Mallet’s earthquake zones correspond with what we know about plate boundaries John Milne (1891) - English Geologist who worked for the Emperor of Japan - Founder of modern earthquake studies and Seismology - Noted 3 types of Earthquake Motion o Back and forth (P-Waves) o Up and down (S-Waves) o Side to side (L-Waves) - The time interval between the first back and forth wave and later was related to the distance from the earthquake (epicenter) - Example: A 10 second delay meant the earthquake was about 50 miles away - Seismology – Study of earthquakes o Greek Seio means “to shake” o Seismos means “earthquake” o The Seismometers – Detects earths motions o The Seismograph – Records earths motions (seismic waves)
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