Exam 1 - Exam 1 Chapter 1 The Human Body An Orientation I...

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Exam 1 Chapter 1 : The Human Body: An Orientation I. Types of Anatomy a. Anatomy : The study of the structure of the human body b. Morphology : The science of form c. Physiology : The study of body function d. Gross Anatomy: The study of body structures that can be examined by the naked eye. Ex. the bones, lungs, and muscles Dissection- An important technique for studying gross anatomy. e. Regional Anatomy- All structures in a single body region Ex. Abdomen, head are examined in a group f. Systemic Anatomy- All organs with related function are studied together. g. Surface Anatomy - The study of shapes and markings h. Microscopic Anatomy - the study of structures that are so small they can be seen only with a microscope. i. Developmental Anatomy- body throughout the life span and effects of again j. Embryology -the study of how body structures form and develop before birth k. Pathological Anatomy -deals with the structural changes in cells, tissues and organs caused by disease. l. Radiographic Anatomy -the study of internal body structures by means of X-ray studies and other techniques. m. Functional Morphology - explores the functional properties of body structures and assesses the efficiency of their design. II. Hierarchy of structural Organization 5 Levels of Organization: i. Chemical level- Atoms, tiny building block of matte combines to form small molecules such as CO 2 and H 2 O
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Macromolecules such as lipids, proteins, nucleic acids, carbohydrates ii. Cellular level- Cells and their functional subunit, cellular organelles Smallest living thing in the body. iii. Tissue Level- A group of cells that work together toward a common function 4 Types: a. Epithelial b. Connective c. Muscle d. Nervous iv. Organ Level- Made up of one or more tissues. Most organs contain all 4 v. Organ System Level- Organs work together to a common purpose. III. Anatomical Position A . Regional Terms- Names of the specific body areas. Axial – Head, neck and trunk. Appendicular- Appendages or outer extremities B . Body Planes 1. Frontal (coronal) plane- lies vertically and divides the body into the anterior and posterior parts. 2. Transverse (horizontal) plane- runs from right to left, dividing into superior and inferior parts. 3. Sagittal planes- are vertical, like frontal, divide the body into right and left parts. a. Median plane or Midsagittal- lies in the midline b. Parasagittal- offset from the midline 4. Oblique sections - Cuts made along any plane that lies diagonally between the horizontal and vertical.
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IV. The Human Body Plane 1. Tube-within-a-tube body plane Inner tube extends from mouth to anus, includes respiratory organs and digestive organs. 2. Bilateral Symmetry The left half of the body is essentially a mirror of the right 3. Dorsal hollow nerve cord Develops into the brain and spinal cord 4. Notochord and vertebrae A stiffening rod in the back just deep to the spinal cord 5. Segmentation Repeating units of similar structure that run from the head along the full length of the trunk 6. Pharyngeal pouches
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