Exam 1 - Exam 1 Chapter 1 : The Human Body: An Orientation...

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Exam 1 Chapter 1 : The Human Body: An Orientation I. Types of Anatomy a. Anatomy : The study of the structure of the human body b. Morphology : The science of form c. Physiology : The study of body function d. Gross Anatomy: The study of body structures that can be examined by the naked eye. Ex. the bones, lungs, and muscles Dissection- An important technique for studying gross anatomy. e. Regional Anatomy- All structures in a single body region Ex. Abdomen, head are examined in a group f. Systemic Anatomy- All organs with related function are studied together. g. Surface Anatomy - The study of shapes and markings h. Microscopic Anatomy - the study of structures that are so small they can be seen only with a microscope. i. Developmental Anatomy- body throughout the life span and effects of again j. Embryology -the study of how body structures form and develop before birth k. Pathological Anatomy -deals with the structural changes in cells, tissues and organs caused by disease. l. Radiographic Anatomy -the study of internal body structures by means of X-ray studies and other techniques. m. Functional Morphology - explores the functional properties of body structures and assesses the efficiency of their design. II. Hierarchy of structural Organization 5 Levels of Organization: i. Chemical level- Atoms, tiny building block of matte combines to form small molecules such as CO 2 and H 2 O
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Macromolecules such as lipids, proteins, nucleic acids, carbohydrates ii. Cellular level- Cells and their functional subunit, cellular organelles Smallest living thing in the body. iii. Tissue Level- A group of cells that work together toward a common function 4 Types: a. Epithelial b. Connective c. Muscle d. Nervous iv. Organ Level- Made up of one or more tissues. Most organs contain all 4 v. Organ System Level- Organs work together to a common purpose. III. Anatomical Position A . Regional Terms- Names of the specific body areas. Axial – Head, neck and trunk. Appendicular- Appendages or outer extremities B . Body Planes 1. Frontal (coronal) plane- lies vertically and divides the body into the anterior and posterior parts. 2. Transverse (horizontal) plane- runs from right to left, dividing into superior and inferior parts. 3. Sagittal planes- are vertical, like frontal, divide the body into right and left parts. a. Median plane or Midsagittal- lies in the midline b. Parasagittal- offset from the midline 4. Oblique sections - Cuts made along any plane that lies diagonally between the horizontal and vertical.
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IV. The Human Body Plane 1. Tube-within-a-tube body plane Inner tube extends from mouth to anus, includes respiratory organs and digestive organs. 2.
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Exam 1 - Exam 1 Chapter 1 : The Human Body: An Orientation...

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