Exam Notes - Exam 2 Chapter 9 Joints Joints are...

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Exam 2 Chapter 9 Joints Joints are articulation where two or more bones come together. This point of articulation does not have to move in order to be a joint. I. Classification of joints 3 Categories or Types A. Fibrous B. Cartilaginous C. Synovial A. Fibrous Joints 3 Types: i. Sutures The connective tissue in the joint is bone Immovable Found only in the skull ii. Syndesmoses Linked by interosteus ligament Found in distal radio/ulnar joints, distal tibia/fibula joint Sprained in sports; intense amount of pressure placed on joint iii. Gomophoses Tooth-socket joints Periodontal ligament gives extra security to hold teeth in socket B. Cartilaginous Joint 2 Types: i. Synchondroses Have hyaline cartilage between the bones
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Found in ribs and sternum; growth plate between diaphyses and epiphyses Widespread ii. Symphyses Have fibrocartilage between the bones Found in the symphysis pubis; invertebral joints Minimal movement C. Synovial Joints Structures of Synovial Joint: a. Articular cartilage , hyaline cartilage on the ends of bones provides a smooth surface for bones to move relative to one another b. Synovial Cavity Filled with fluid c. Articular capsule- 2 components: Fibrous capsule (an outside capsule with is very tough and made up of DICT Synovial membrane (an inside lining that acts as a filter between blood and synovial fluid d. Synovial Fluid Viscous, lubricating fluid that delivers nutrients and oxygen while removing waste products with movement. e. Reinforcing ligaments Helps stabilize the joint Could be capsular, intracapsular, extracapsular f. Nerves and vessels Runs through, allowing for filtration, sensation of pain, and proprioception D. Other Joint Structures
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a. Fibrocartilage Found in areas of high stress, such as articular joint of the knee b. Brusae A sac filled with synovial fluid located between a bone and tendon, to reduce friction Ex. Shoulder, elbow and knee c. The Tendon Sheath Hold tendon against bone in areas of the body such as the shoulder E. Types of Synovial Joints Categorized: By shape of the articulating surfaces Movement that they permit 4 Types of Movement: 1. Nonaxial Do not rotate, but slide relative to one another 2. Uniaxial One motion, around a single axis 3. Biaxial Two motions available around 2 axis 4. Triaxial represents all three axes of motion 6 Shapes 1. Plane (Gliding ) Nonaxial Slip and slide Flat articulating surface Found in intercarpal, intertarsal, sternoclavicular 2. Hinge Uniaxial
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One concave surface, one convex Held together by strong collateral ligament Found on elbow, interphalangeal joints, maybe knee 3. Pivot Uniaxial One rounded surface, one surface with a depression Allows for rotational movement o Ex includes articulation between the axis and atlas, as well as proximal radioulnar- susceptible to injury in small children.
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