Exam 4 - Exam 4 Chapter 21: Respiratory System I. Breathing...

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Exam 4 Chapter 21: Respiratory System I. Breathing basics The average individual breaths between 12 and 15 breaths per minute at rest When at rest, one breathes in about 6 liter of air per minute. Exercising increase to 100 liters of air per minute Critical times to note with respect to a lack of oxygen: 4-5 minutes will cause the individual to become unconscious 7-8 minutes will leave the individual with brain damage 10 minutes without oxygen leads to death The Greeks and Romans recognized breathing as being critical to life. They named it pneuma meaning an “intangible life force.” Pulmonary ventilation is the act of breathing moving air in and out of the body. II. Respiration Not the same as “breathing.” 2 Types of Respiration: 1) External respiration o The movement of oxygen (0 2 ) from the lungs into the blood. o Gases are transported through the cardiovascular system 2) Internal respiration o The movement of oxygen (O 2 ) from the blood cell and carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) from cell to the blood. Functions of the respiratory system a. The respiratory system is responsible for gas exchange (O 2 in and CO 2 out)
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b. It also plays a role in sound production c. Assistance in abdominal compression (such as urination, defecation, and childbirth) d. Reflexive breathing (such as coughing and sneezing) III. Functional division of the respiratory system 1) The Conducting Zone includes all of the structures that delivers air to the alveoli. When transporting air to the respiratory structure of the lungs, the conducting zone works to warm and humidify the air. Ex. This is why when exercising in cold weather it becomes painful to breathe; there is not enough time for the air to be warmed before it reaches the lungs. Responsible for transporting air to the Respiratory Zone 2) Respiratory Zone includes most of the structure of the respiratory system. 1) The Conducting zone A. Begins with your nose and nasal cavities: Works to warm, moisten, and filter air acting as an airway for respiration smell and a resonating chamber. B. The pharynx: Three parts: 1. Nasopharynx (behind the nasal cavity), 2. Oropharynx (between uvula and the epiglottis) 3. Laryngopharynx (between the epiglottis and the voice box). Transport air and food (the trachea is anterior to the epiglottis) Resonating chamber (to make the voice louder). The uvula is a one-way check valve that pushes up and back when you swallow to prevent food or liquid from going into the nasal cavity. It is not 100% effective. C. The larynx:
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a. Includes thyroid cartilage (anterior only) makes up the Adam’s apple, cricoid cartilage (a complete ring) b. The epiglottis (a check valve to be sure things go where are supposed to) c. The glottis (the space between the vocal cords), d. The vestibular (superior and for support) the vocal folds (below vestibular folds and what actually makes the sound. Functions to direct food, fluids, and air and in
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This note was uploaded on 03/18/2009 for the course APK 2100C taught by Professor Siders during the Spring '08 term at University of Florida.

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Exam 4 - Exam 4 Chapter 21: Respiratory System I. Breathing...

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