Geomatics - Exam Review - 2101 GEOMATICS EXAM REVIEW...

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2101 GEOMATICS EXAM REVIEW Conversion of Survey Feet to Int’l Feet: (12” / 1 Survey Foot) * (1 meter / 39.37” ((Survey Foot))) * (3.280839895 Int’l Feet / 1 meter) Why do we carry one extra significant figure in intermediate calculations? Carrying an extra significant figure counters the effects of round off error. High Precision, High Accuracy: (Dartboard Analogies) Three X’s close together, center of target. High Precision, Low Accuracy: Three X’s close together, far off center of target. Low Accuracy, High Precision: (Same as above) Accuracy refers to the nearness of the observed quantities to the true value. Precision refers to the level of consistency of a group of values. The primary difference is that the precise values may or may not be close to the true values. Error: NATURAL ERRORS: Errors caused by natural phenomena, such as wind, temperature, humidity, refraction, etc INSTRUMENT ERRORS: Errors resulting from imperfections in measuring instruments, such as graduations on theodolite circle or tape PERSONAL ERRORS: Errors caused by human limitations of the observer, such as vertical crosshair not aligned perfectly on target SYSTEMATIC ERRORS: These errors conform to mathematical and physical laws (e.g. temperature) and can generally be computed and correction applied RANDOM ERRORS:
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Errors that obey the laws of probability (beyond control of observer) - no absolute method to compute and eliminate these errors, but they can be estimated using statistical methods Why do we keep equal lengths of BS and FS in leveling? Keeping equal lengths of BS and FS accounts for errors in curvature in the earth, refraction, and instrument maladjustment.
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