anatomy notes 917 - ANATOMY NOTES CONNECTIVE TISSUE Table...

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ANATOMY NOTES 9-17-08 CONNECTIVE TISSUE Table 12.4 BONE - Highly vascularized o Partially because it is constantly depositing and withdrawing calcium as your body needs it - PURPOSES: o Supports soft structures and against forces of gravity o Protects vital organs Ribs protect heart and lungs, skull protects brain o Gives you movement o Stores calcium and phosphorous Constantly depositing and withdrawing Need calcium for muscle contraction and nerve impulses - TYPES OF BONE: o SPONGEY BONE Site of hemopoeisis Where blood cells are made (?) - FOUR TYPES OF BONE CATEGORIZED BY SHAPE (fig 6.3) - 1) long bones o Found: in limbs (legs, arms, hands, toes, feet) - 2) short bones o Found in wrists and ankles - 3) flat bones o Classic example: frontal bone (part of skull) o Other examples: breast bone (sternum), pelvic bones, ribs - 4) irregular bones o Classic example: vertebral column o Bones in your ear Amplify the sound waves that are striking your ear drum - Fig 6.4 TYPICAL BONE ANATOMY o Periosteum Outer covering of bone Made up of dense irregular connective tissue Why? – tendons attach muscle to bone; there are many different ways you can move muscles/limbs; there are muscles attached from all different angles, so force can come to the bone at all different angles Attached to the tissue underneath (compact bone) by perforating fibers Collagen fibers Space between fibers is filled by cellular layer o Contains bone stem cell Allows for bones to grow in diameter during growing years
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o Compact bone Where bone gets most of its strength o Spongy bone Internal from compact Not soft, it’s hard, called spongy because it looks like a sponge o Endosteum Lines spongy bone Epithelial tissue o Medullary cavity Hollow part of a long bone Contains bone marrow Red bone marrow in ends o Produces blood cells Yellow bone marrow in middle o Contains fat (adipose) o Another place where you store fat o If you get hit by a car and lose a lot of blood, you will quickly (within a few minutes to a few hours) convert yellow bone marrow into red bone marrow to help produce more blood. After you heal, you will get rid of this extra red bone marrow and convert it back into fat. o Diaphysis Shaft of the bone o Metaphysic Where the bone begins to enlarge at both ends o Epiphyseal line Have epiphyseal plates during growing years, they contained bone stem cells. As you grow taller, bone grows from both ends. Bones also increased in diameter. When you reach maximum stature, your bones stop growing lengthwise, but you still have the ability to increase bone diameter as you increase the mass of your body, if you lose weight you can decrease bone diameter. o Epiphysis End of the bone Proximal and distal epiphysis Covered by articular cartilage Hyelene cartilage - GENERAL ANATOMY OF BONES o Fiber is collagen o Matrix/ground substance is solid - Fig 6.8 o BONE GROWTH When you need your bones to grow you begin by producing 4 or 5 layers of lamellae , after that you reach the limit of the blood supply. In layers
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