anatomy ch 17 clinical views - CHAPTER 17 CEREBROVASCULAR...

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CHAPTER 17 CEREBROVASCULAR ACCIDENT (CVA) / STROKE - Caused by reduced blood supply to a part of the brain due to a blocked or damaged arterial blood vessel - Types of clots: o Thrombus Blood clot within the blood vessel Can completely block the lumen of the vessel o Embolus Blood clot that formed someplace else Breaks free, travels through vascular system, and becomes lodged in a cerebral blood vessel - Worst form of stroke: o Occurs when a weakened blood vessel in the brain ruptures and hemorrhages- leading to unconsciousness and death - Symptoms: o Loss or blurring of vision o Weakness or slight numbness o Headache o Dizziness o Walking difficulties o Depending on site of blockage: regional sensory and/or motor loss Example: patient exhibits speech difficulties and loss of motor control of the right arm may be experiencing a CVA that affects the left hemisphere precentral gyrus in the region of the motor homunculus upper limb and the motor speech area - If the obstruction lasts longer than 10 minutes, tissue in the brain may die - Massive stroke can leave a person completely paralyzed and without sensation over as much as half the body - Transiet ischemic attack (TIA) o “mini-stroke” o Brief episodes of loss of sensation or motor ability or tingling in the limbs o Results from a temporary plug in a blood vessel that dissolves in a matter of minutes o Can indicate substantial risk for a more serious vessel blockage in the future - Risks o Increases with age o Influenced by family history, race, and gender o Can lower risk by having a health lifestyle and getting treatment for any existing heart conditions, high cholesterol levels, and high blood pressure People with history of CVA or TIA should takean anti-clot medication, such as aspirin
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HEMISPHERECTOMIES AND CEREBRAL LATERALIZATION - Seizure activity almost always originates on one side of the brain - Lobectomies o Surgical removal of the brain part that is the source of the seizures o Often eliminates seizures
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This note was uploaded on 03/18/2009 for the course BS 240 taught by Professor Zink during the Spring '09 term at University of the Sciences in Philadelphia.

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anatomy ch 17 clinical views - CHAPTER 17 CEREBROVASCULAR...

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