anatomy clinical views exam 4 - CLINICAL VIEWS: EXAM 4...

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CLINICAL VIEWS: EXAM 4 CHAPTER 23: VESSELS AND CIRCULATION DEEP VEIN THROMBOSIS (DVT) - Refers to a thrombus (a blood clot in a vein) - Most common site for a thrombus is a vein in the calf (sural) region o Femoral region is another common site - Clot partially or completely blocks the flow of blood in the vein - Typically occurs in people with heart disease or those who are inactive or immobile for a long period of time o Even healthy individuals on a long airplane trip may develop it (“economy class syndrome”) o May be a complication of pregnancy - Initial signs: fever; tenderness, and redness in the affected area; severe pain and swelling in the areas drained by the affected vein; rapid heartbeat - Pulmonary embolus o Most serious complication of DVT o A blood clot breaks free within the vein and travels to the lung, eventually blocking a branch of the pulmonary artery and potentially causing respiratory failure and death - Treatment (if diagnosed): given anticoagulation medication to prevent further clotting and break up the existing clot - To reduce risk: o Maintain healthy weight, stay active, treat medical conditions that may increase risk of DVT o On long flight or car trip: stretch legs and move feet frequently o Bedridden individuals: wear full-length compression stockings to assist circulation
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HYPERTENSION: THE “SILENT KILLER” - Chronically elevated blood pressure (systolic pressure greater than 140 mm Hg and/or diastolic pressure greater than 90 mm Hg) - 90-95% of cases are essential hypertension – causes is unknown (idiopathic) - secondary hypertension – high blood pressure is caused by another condition (usually renal disease or an adrenal gland tumor) - effects: o causes changes in blood vessel walls, making them prone to further injury-making them more likely to develop atherosclerosis) o causes undue stress on arterioles, resulting in thickening of the arteriole walls and reduction in luminal diameter (arteriosclerosis ) o causes thickening of the renal arteries, leading to renal failure o can greatly damage the cerebral arteries, making them prone to rupture- which would result in a fatal brain hemorrhage or stroke o hypertension is major cause of heart failure because of the extra workload it places on the heart - called “silent killer” because initially there are no noticeable symptoms o everyone is encouraged to get their blood pressure checked regularly to make sure they don’t have hypertension - treatment for mild hypertension: o losing weight, eating healthy, exercising, not smoking, reducing or controlling stress - medications: o diuretics- increase urine output, consequently lowering blood volume o beta-blockers- slow the heart rate and lower heart output o ACE (angiotensin-converting enzyme) inhibitors- block angiotensin II (a protein that constricts arterioles), thereby increasing vasodilation ATHEROSCLEROSIS
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- Progressive disease of the elastic and muscular arteries - Characterized by the presence of an atheroma , which leads to the thickening of the tunica
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This note was uploaded on 03/18/2009 for the course BS 240 taught by Professor Zink during the Spring '09 term at University of the Sciences in Philadelphia.

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anatomy clinical views exam 4 - CLINICAL VIEWS: EXAM 4...

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