8/25/2015 THE WORLD BEFORE THE FIRST WORLD WAR What is Imperialism? Imperialism- The policy of extending the rule or authority of an empire or nation over foreign countries. Conquering land and peoples When a country is powerful enough to force it’s lifestyle upon the conquered peoples Reasons for Imperialism: The partition of Africa in the 1880’s to 1914 aka: “THE SCRAMBLE FOR AFRICA” When several European states engaged in what today would be called a “feeding frenzy”. All went to seize a piece of African territory before it has been wiped out. -19 th century Africa was referred to as “white mans graveyard” mainly because of diseases. Motivations: 1) Moral imperatives and adventures 2) Economic 3) Nationalism 4) Strategic concerns 5) Political The old school view of Imperialism before the 1880’s was motivated by the 3 G’s GOLD – GOD – GLORY Moral Imperatives and explorers: Most powerful = Europe Why was Europe the most powerful? They thought everything they did was the absolute best. They made it their duty to Christianize and civilize Africans, Indians, and Asians.
The flag follows the cross: Missionaries ---- The flag -Missionaries go first -They go into deep dark parts of Africa before Imperialist LMS (London Missionary Society)- Anglican White fathers, spiritans (Holy Ghost father)- Catholic Why did the Europeans go to Africa in the late 19 th century? Slavery Since 1807, the British really wanted to end slavery Their earliest colony was the Sierra Leone British end slave trade in 1807 In 1834 they made it their mission to end it everywhere Ludwig Krapf - German who worked for the British church. He preached against slavery in Rabi Africa. In his 8 years of preaching he only converted 8 Africans, so he left Rabi in the late 1840s and moved into the interior of Africa. He keeps a journal of people he meets and writes down everything, sends letters about what he sees to London newspapers. He wrote a story about how he discovered a snow-covered mountain in Africa (Mount Kilimanjaro), he was the first man to discover. This discovery sparks an interest to famous explorers in Africa. Explorers in Africa David Livingstone Missionary in South Africa Explored in Tanzania and Great Lake region of East Africa He became “lost” in 1871- 1873 during his expedition across Tanzania Henry Morton Stanley Not kind to Africans Hired in 1873 to find the missing Livingstone Explored East Africa, circumnavigated Lake Victoria Explored/mapped entire Congo River Basin for king Leopold Found Livingstone in Ujiji
Economic Concerns as motivation Increased industrialization in the 19 th century Economic motivations Future returns (not immediate) Raw materials European industries o Palm oil (lubricant for Euro factories and machines, grows naturally) o Rubber- durable, all over central Africa Africans grow pay them little package sell for high price Agricultural products o Produces a lot of food Ex: peanuts, tea, coco beans, coffee, cotton Conquer land
- Spring '08
- History, Scramble for Africa