hum 111 estruscan notes

hum 111 estruscan notes - HUM 111 THE ETRUSCANS Professor...

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HUM 111 THE ETRUSCANS Professor Sonia Sorrell Chronology: Etruscans 900-509 BC, last king overthrown Roman Republic 509-31 BC, Battle of Actium (or 27 BC “Augustus”) Age of Augustus 31 BC-14 AD, the Golden Age of Rome, Pax Romana Roman Empire 31 BC-476 AD, Odoacer becomes Emperor of Rome Villanovans This time is parallel to the Archaic age of Greece. The Etruscans : Latin speaking peoples. Precursors of the Romans (like Aegean cultures were to Greeks) because they laid the foundation for Romans. When the Romans came down to Italy, the Etruscans were already thriving there (900 BC). They weren’t the oldest people in/of Italy, but we have the most evidence from them. Herodotus said the Etruscans came from Lydia in Asia Minor . Others said they came from Eastern Europe (they spoke Indo-European). But Herodotus is probably correct. They were well established in Italy. Italy is sea oriented. The Etruscans had city-states (i.e. Etruria). Rome was an Etruscan state before the Romans settled there. The lower part of Italy was settled by Greek colonies . The Roma called it Magna Grekia or “Big Greece.” Much of what we know about Greece comes from the Etruscans, especially their tombs, because they traded with them a lot. The Etruscans did not have a unified nation/state. They had city-states. They were monarchies, though, and that would have great influence on their architecture. When the Etruscans formed a city-state, they would locate it on a hill for weather and defense (warning). Because they chose such good sites, later peoples built over them. What we know of the Etruscans, we know from their tombs. Unlike Greece, which used stone and marble, the Etruscans built from wood and “waddle and dob” (it’s fragile and deteriorates over time.) Etruscan tombs were all placed away from the city of the dead—Necropolis means “city of the dead” (necro = dead; polis = city). And the Necropolis was away from the city of the living. Tufa = volcanic rock (makes up much of the land in Italy). It’s soft when wet but it dries hard. This is what most Etruscan tombs were made of. The tombs were built above land and covered with dirt, so stuff would grow on top (looks like little humps in grass from afar). The word “tomb” comes from the Lation word “Tumulus,” which is what these are. Tumului consist of tufa . The archways over the Etrustcan tombs were one legacy left to the Romans. The Romans didn’t invent the arch; they brought it above ground and used it everywhere, combining it with concrete. Loculi/Loculus (where we get the word
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“location’ from)is a burial space inside the tomb. Some have remains of people inside.
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hum 111 estruscan notes - HUM 111 THE ETRUSCANS Professor...

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