Guide to Test III (Baroque) Dates (1600-1750) General Contextual Information: Absolutism1550-1800Colombian Exchange- brought wealth to Europe and Europe’s monarchsGod and silver enter the marketCommercial Revolution occurs- capitalism, joint stock companies, inflation, tariffsAbsolute monarchs emerge- Spain, France, Russia, EnglandControlled every aspect of life- social, political, economicClaim the right to rule from God- Divine Right TheoryPhilip II of Spain- lived a “frugal” life in his palaceQueen Elizabeth I of England- Enemy of SpainAllowed English pirates to attack Spanish galleons- Knights Sir Francis DrakeSpanish Armada-1588/invasion force fails, rough seas and slower boatsLouis XIV of France- “L’etat c’est moi!” means “I am the state!”/ also known as the “sun king”Elaborate court ceremonies- LeveeBuilds the grand palace, VersaillesHoused the royal, nobles, servants, and political officials-700 rooms!Royal gardensThe royal bedroomPeter the Great of Russia-over 7 feet tallWesternized- forced the boyars to shave their beardsWesternization-simplifies Russian alphabet/calls in Western experts/sets up academies for math, science, and engineering/adopts western dressDirected the construction of St. Petersburg-“The window to the West”Characteristic of Baroque Style Unity in Mood Unity of Melodic Material Unity of Rhythm Terraced Dynamics Instrumental Forms Concerto –a popular form of Baroque music using in general a baroque orchestra (violins, violas, cellos, basses, and a keyboard) and a soloist (any instrument). The orchestra, which acts as accompaniment, is often called a tutti (all). The concertos had in general three contrasting movements. The order of the movements was: fast, slow, fast. 1st and 3rd movements were written in Ritornello form. In Ritornello form, the tutti (orchestra) opens in general with a theme called the ritornello (refrain). Then this musical theme alternates with sections of the concertino in this way:Tutti (Ritornello)SoloTuttiSoloTuttiSoloTuttiSoloEtc.Concerto Grosso- is very similar to that of Concerto with the exception that in the Concerto Grosso there was more than one soloist.