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希尔国际商务课后习题参考答案英文版

希尔国际商务课后习题参考答案英文版 -...

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Global business today Chapter 1: Globalization 1. Describe the shifts in the world economy over the last 30 years. What are the implications of these shifts for international businesses based in Great Britain? North America? Hong Kong? Answer: The world economy has shifted dramatically over the past 30 years. As late as the 1960s, four stylized facts described the demographics of the global economy. The first was U.S. dominance in the world economy and world trade. The second was U.S. dominance in the world foreign direct investment picture. Related to this, the third fact was the dominance of large, multinational U.S. firms in the international business scene. The fourth was that roughly half of the globe - the centrally planned economies of the Communist world - was off-limits to Western international businesses. All of these demographic facts have changed. Although the U.S. remains the world's dominant economic power, its share of world output and world exports have declined significantly since the 1960s. This trend does not reflect trouble in the U.S. economy, but rather reflects the growing industrialization of developing countries such as China, India, Indonesia, and South Korea. This trend is also reflected in the world foreign direct investment picture. As depicted in Figure 1.2 in the textbook, the share of world output (or the stock of foreign direct investment) generated by developing countries has been on a steady increase since the 1960s, while the share of world output generated by rich industrial countries has been on a steady decline. Shifts in the world economy can also be seen through the shifting power of multinational enterprises. Since the 1960s, there have been two notable trends in the demographics of the multinational enterprise. The first has been the rise of non-U.S. multinationals, particularly Japanese multinationals. The second has been the emergence of a growing number of small and medium-sized multinationals, called mini- multinationals. The fall of Communism in Eastern Europe and the republics of the former Soviet Union have brought about the final shift in the world economy. Many of the former Communist nations of Europe and Asia seem to share a commitment to democratic politics and free market economies. Similar developments are being observed in Latin America. If these trends continue, the opportunities for international business may be enormous. The implications of these shifts are similar for North America and Britain. The United States and Britain once had the luxury of being the dominant players in the world arena, with little substantive competition from the developing nations of the world. That has changed. Today, U.S. and British manufacturers must compete with competitors from across the world to win orders.
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