Geol 101 Faults and Folds

Geol 101 Faults and Folds - Geol 101 Faults and Folds...

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Geol 101 Faults and Folds 16/10/2007 12:47:00 Rock Strength Rock strength does not change uniformly with depth Determined by Composition, Temperature, Pressure Fig 11.26 Strike and Dip Two measurements that define the position of a planar feature in space o Strike Compass direction of the horizontal like formed by the intersection of a horizontal plane and an inclined plane o Dip Angle between a horizontal plane and the inclined plane, measured down from horizontal Fig 11.2 Ductile Deformation – Folding Monocline o Layers of rock are tilted Anticline o An up-fold (arch) o Axis – Highest point Syncline o A downward (through-like) o Axis – Lowest point
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Anticlines and Synclines are usually paired Fig 11.4 Wet Rocks are Weaker This rock probably started out as a gneiss Fig 11.20 The wetter they get the weaker they get Folding Happens Deep in the Crust Lots of folding in continental collision Folding can happen with Subduction zones Brittle Deformation – Faulting Crustal rock is brittle and cut by fractures : Joint or Faults Abrupt movement – fracture of brittle rocks and movement along faults o Stress overcomes friction – creep o Earthquakes Deformation by Fracture
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