Background China - Single-Party States China Sun Yat Sen = Sun Xixian Chiang Kai Shek = Jiang Jieshi Mao Tse Tong = Mao Zedong Background Knowledge

Background China - Single-Party States China Sun Yat Sen =...

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Single-Party States – ChinaSun Yat Sen = Sun XixianChiang Kai Shek = Jiang JieshiMao Tse Tong = Mao ZedongBackground KnowledgeChina pre 1911:oHad for many centuries been largely cut off from the rest ofthe worldoSurrounded by oceans, mountains, deserts, junglesoApart from Japanese, most Chinese met no other foreignersoChina was the worldThe GovernmentoRuled by emperor who lived in Peking oManchu Qing Dynasty ruled 1644-1911oThey succeeded in conquering the Han Chinese Ming Dynasty,in a battle that lose 25 million livesoThey were a powerful northern Chinese group who sought tobring their own cultural traditions to China – made everyonewear a queue (ponytail) as a sign of conquest, ManchuBannermen were given legal privileges in Chinese cities – theyprovided structure for Manchu menoUnder the emperors, work or governing China was carried outby Mandarins, the educated upper classoPower was held by landlords, Mandarins and Emperor (just10% of population)The PeopleoGreat increase in China’s population in 18thand 19thcenturiesfrom 100 million in 1700 to 400 million in 1900oTop of society was a small select educated group of officials,large landowners and rich merchants oBottom were the poor:Peasants made up 80% of the populationSmall villages, owned little land and a few animals½ to ¾ of the crops they grew went to landowners asrentThey paid taxes to an imperial governmentPeasants faced deaths from famine and naturaldisastersDid not consider change, were ruled by custom andtradition and women were inferior and held no rights,total obedience to father and then husband19thcentury
Single-Party States – ChinaoDuring the 1800s, control of the Qing Dynasty weakened:suffered social strife, economic stagnation and increasedWestern influence (Opium trade and predominantly Baptistand Presbyterian missionaries)From 1840s Europeans began to take advantage ofChina’s weaknesses and began trading with and gainingincreasing control over the Chinese peopleChina was controlled by foreign powers “treaty powers”This was largely attributed to the inability of the Chinesegovernment to respond adequately to challengingconditions facing China in the 19thcenturyoTwo Opium wars: 1st1839-1842 (fought between China andBritain) and 2nd1856-1860 (between China and Britain/France)– fought over the rights of forcibly operated tradingconcessions operated by Britain and U.S.A.oBoth Opium wars were costly for the Qing Dynasty:Imperial treasury declared bankruptOutflow of silver in exchange for opiumSevere faminesBritain won first opium war and received territory ofHong Kong until 1997oTaiping Rebellion 1850-1864Rebellious quasi-Christian group (1/3 of China) revoltedagainst Manchus – shut down by a combined Westernand Manchu force2nddeadliest conflict in history, 50 millionoBy the 1860s, the Qing Dynasty had dealt with the rebellionsat an enormous cost and loss of life and additionally, the

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