Chapter 34 - Chapter 34 New Frontiers: Politics and Social...

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Chapter 34 New Frontiers: Politics and Social Change in the 1960’s I. Election of 1960: Richard Nixon (R) vs. John F. Kennedy (D) -Nixon: better known because of 8 years as vice president for Eisenhower, reputation as a cunning chameleon (“Tricky Dick”), great ability, energy, and love for politics (especially combative politics), born in suburban L.A. he grew up in a low income Quaker family, entered politics as a Republican congressman after law school and military service in WWII, also served in Senate, rapid rise to political stardom, was an active and highly-visible vice president -Kennedy: WWII hero, handsome, glamorous wife, Harvard education, large and wealthy family, Catholic, only 43 when running (youngest person ever elected), lacked national prominence and political distinction, mediocre Senate record, showed energy grace and ambition during campaign, “New Frontier” campaign -Turning point in campaign came when Nixon and Kennedy debated on television. Nixon was still recovering from an illness and was perspiring the whole time. In comparison to Kennedy, Nixon looked haggard, weak, uneasy, and sinister in front of the camera. Kennedy and his vice president, Lyndon B. Johnson, won the closest presidential race since 1888. II. The New Administration: -Kennedy sought to attract the “best and brightest” minds for his cabinet - Robert McNamara : reorganized Ford Motor Company, Secretary of Defense - McGeorge Bundy : special assistant for national security affairs - Dean Rusk : career diplomat and former Rhodes scholar, secretary of state - Robert Kennedy : JFK’s brother, attorney general, advocate for Civil Rights -At the inaugural ceremony gave the “ask not what your country can do for you – ask what you can do for your country” speech (“Kennedy style”) III. The Kennedy Record: -did not have popular mandate and struggled with Democratic majority in Congress -Notable victories were a new Housing Act (appropriated nearly $5 billion for urban renewal over four years, an increase in the minimum wage, and enhanced Social Security benefits), Peace Corps (supplied volunteers for educational and technical service in underdeveloped countries), an accelerated program to land astronauts on the moon before 1970, Alliance for Progress (series of broad foreign-aid programs to help Latin American nations), a bold tax-reduction bill to accelerate economic growth, and the Trade Expansion Act of 1962 (his most significant legislative accomplishment, eventually led to tariff cuts averaging 35 percent on goods traded between the U.S. and the European Economic Community, or the Common Market). IV. The Warren Court : Chief Justice Earl Warren - Gideon v. Wainwright : required every felony defendant be provided a lawyer regardless of the defendant’s ability to pay.
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- Escobedo v. Illinois : a person accused of a crime must also be allowed to consult a lawyer before being interrogated by police - Miranda v. Arizona : an accused person in police custody must be informed of
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This note was uploaded on 04/28/2008 for the course HIST 106 taught by Professor Smith during the Spring '08 term at Texas A&M.

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Chapter 34 - Chapter 34 New Frontiers: Politics and Social...

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