Brain_Injury - Traumatic Brain Injury Know the structure...

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Brain Anatomy and Physiology Know the structure and function of the different areas of the brain. Traumatic Brain Injury
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Pathophysiology Primary Injury Initial damage resulting from traumatic event Contusions, lacerations, foreign object, etc. Secondary Injury Resulting from swelling and/or bleeding Rigid cranium restricts expansion and pressure increases If ICP continues to rise, herniation may result
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Pathophysiology Closed brain injury Rapid acceleration and deceleration Collision with another object Open brain injury Penetrating object Blunt trauma causing brain exposure
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Types of Brain Injury Concussion Temporary loss of neurologic funciton No apparent structural damage Period of unconsciousness ►Thinking Point: If your patient has suffered a concussion, how would you focus your assessment? Contusion More severe than concussion Brain is bruised s/sx depend upon size and associated cerebral edema
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Types of Brain Injury Diffuse Axonal Injury Widespread damage to axons throughout the brain Seen in mild, moderate, and severe head trauma s/sx of global injury ►Review: decerebrate and decorticate posturing
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Types of Brain Injury Intracranial Hemorrhage Most serious injury Symptoms result from distortion of brain and ↑ICP Location Epidural Subdural Intracerebral
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Subdural Hematoma Blood collects between the dura and the brain Can be acute, subacute or chronic ►Describe your assessment priorities
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Epidural Hematoma Blood collects between the skull and the dura Can be caused by laceration of middle meningeal artery Typically there is a momentary loss of consciousness, followed by a lucid interval Neurologic deterioration follows rapidly
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Intracerebral Hemorrhage
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  • Spring '06
  • MANY
  • Traumatic brain injury, cerebral edema, Nursing Interventions, brain injury

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