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Chronic_Neurologic_Disease_Comparison - Dysphagia Dysphonia...

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CHRONIC NEUROLOGICAL DISEASES COMPARISON CHART Nursing 360 Disease Cause Neurotransmitter Symptoms Course of Disease Parkinson’s Damage to dopamine secreting cells in substantia nigra (basal ganglia) Dopamine depleted causing an imbalance between dopamine and acetylcholine Tremors Rigidity Bradykinesia Slow onset of symptoms Age: 50-70s 20 years or more progressive symptoms usually death occurs due to pneumonia/falls/UTI or skin breakdown Multiple Sclerosis Autoimmune damage to myelin sheath of motor nerve cells None Diplopia Abnormal neurological sensations Fatigue Emotional lability Frequent URIs Slow onset of symptoms Age: 20-30’s Variable, usually intermittent exacerbations but may range from minimal dysfunction to severe Myasthenia Gravis Autoimmune damage to acetylcholine receptors at myoneuronal junction (particularly nerves arising from “bulbar” region of brain Acetylcholine Double vision, ptosis
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Unformatted text preview: Dysphagia Dysphonia Respiratory distress Abrupt onset Age: Women, 20-40 Men, 60-70 Intermittent exacerbations Guillain Barre Autoimmune attack of peripheral nerve myelin None Ascending weakness with dyskinesia, paresthesias, hyporeflexia 25% require ventilation Abrupt onset, initial episode may cause disability for a year or more, 85% complete recovery Amyotropic Lateral Sclerosis Unknown cause of damage to anterior horn motor neurons and lower brain stem motor nuclei Glutamate Fatigue, muscle weakness, cramps, “twitches”, muscle atrophy 25% of patients start with cranial motor nerve weakness initially Progressive onset Average survival 3 yrs Alzheimer’s Unknown cause of senile plaques, genetic link Acetylcholine Subtle memory loss Personality changes Insidious onset, slow progression Increasing risk with age...
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