History 1 Exam Review - Zeeshan Saleem History 1 Exam...

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Zeeshan Saleem History 1 Exam Review Terms: “City on a Hill” – Winthrop admonished the future Massachusetts Bay colonists that their new community would be "as a city upon a hill", watched by the world. Middle Passage – African slaves were thereafter traded for raw materials, which were returned to Europe to complete the "Triangular Trade". The Middle Passage was the stage of the triangular trade in which millions of Africans were shipped to the New World as part of the Atlantic slave trade. New France – the area colonized by France in North America during a period beginning with the exploration of the Saint Lawrence River by Jacques Cartier in 1534 and ending with the cession of New France to Spain and Great Britain in 1763. West Indies – Northwest Passage – famous sea route linking the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans, thereby providing an alternate shipping route from Europe to Asia. Powhatan – Native American confederation of tribes in Virginia . It may also refer to the leader of those tribes, commonly referred to as Chief Powhatan. It is estimated that there were about 14,000–21,000 Powhatan people in eastern Virginia when the English settled Jamestown in 1607. Society of Friends (Quakers) – Society of Friends, Religious Society of Friends, Christian sect founded in England around 1660 by George Fox having no formal sacraments or priesthood and opposing violence Mayflower Compact – agreement created in 1620 by the passengers on the Mayflower that established the first local government system in the New World Jamestown – first successful English settlement in North America (established in Virginia in 1607) New Netherland – a 17th-century colonial province of the Seven United Netherlands that was located on the East Coast of North America . The claimed territories extended from the Delmarva Peninsula to extreme southwestern Cape Cod , while the more limited settled areas are now part of the Mid-Atlantic States of New York , New Jersey , Delaware , and Connecticut , with small outposts in Pennsylvania and Rhode Island . “Old Lights” – Typically, if a denomination is changing, and some refuse to change, and the denomination splits, those who did not change are referred to as the "Old Lights” Salutary Neglect – refers to an unofficial and long-lasting 17th- & 18th-century British policy of avoiding strict enforcement of parliamentary laws, meant to keep the American colonies obedient to England . Great Awakening – periods of religious revival in American religious history . Historians and theologians identify three or four waves of increased religious enthusiasm occurring between the early 18th century and the late 19th century. Each of these "Great Awakenings" was characterized by widespread revivals led by evangelical Protestant minister s, a sharp increase of interest in religion, a profound sense of conviction and

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