Responses to the End of the Bracero Program1. Mexican Workers Migrate Illegally •Demand for farm workers remains high as labor-intensive fruit and vegetable production continues to expand.•Rural Mexico: high birth rates, little education, few opportunities elastic supply of farm labor•No legal method of migration•Braceros built strong migration networks in the U.S.•Illegal immigration to farm work was strong and growing during the Bracero Program, and it continued to grow after the Bracero Program.
Responses to the End of the Bracero Program2. Labor Associations•Increased labor market efficiency•Helped stabilize labor costs•Increased average worker earnings•Coastal Growers Association (Ventura)•Number of lemon harvesters fell from 8,517 in 1965 to 1,292 in 1978•Hourly earnings rose from $1.77 to $5.63•Average annual earnings rose from $267 (151 hours) to $3,430 (609 hours)
has intentionally blurred sections.
Sign up to view the full version.