Whitney Williams – PSY 2402 4 – Exam 1 Chapter 1-Statistics(3)-comes from the Latin status, which is also the root for our modern term state or political unit; 1)data;2)functions of data, such as the mean and range;3)techniques for collecting, analyzing, and interpreting data for subsequent decision making;4)the science of creating and applying such techniques. Descriptive statistics(7)-tools for depicting or summarizing data so that they can be more readily comprehended;aka reduce large amounts of data into a more understandable form. Induction (7)-Observe a sample of elements of the population and generalize from the sample to all of the elements in the population. Inferential statistics (8)-tools for inferring the properties of one or more populations by inspecting samples drawn from the populations. Range (11)-the set of elements for which the variable stands. Variable can take on different values but a constant is a characteristic that does not vary. Qualitative variable (12)-are both mutually exclusive(not overlapping; an element cannot be in more than one category) and exhaustive(an element must be in one of the categories). Either ordered or unordered. Quantitative variable (13)-either discrete(countable, finite, whole numbers)or continuous(uncountable,infinite;temp.,length). Nominal measurement (14)-simplest; least amount of info; assigning elements to mutually exclusive and exhaustive equivalence classes so that those in the same class are considered to be equivalent to one another and those in difference classes are not equivalent; property of distinctness. One-to-one transformation-replacing nominal labels such as “men” and “women” with numbers such as 1 and 2; any labels and numbers can be used for this transformation. Ordinal (15)-assigning elements to mutually exclusive and exhaustive equivalence classes that are ranked or ordered with respect to one another; property of distinctness and order; contain more info than nominal. Strictly increasing monotonic transformation-permits one to replace the original set of numbers with new numbers as long as the new numbers have the same order as the original numbers; you can replace the rankings of political candidates 1,2,3,4 with 23,45,67,89 b/c only the order of the numbers is important, NOT THE DISTANCE BETWEEN ANY TWO NUMBERS; transformations that can be applied are more restrictive than nominal scales b/c labels in ordinal scales contain more information that needs to be preserved than the labels in nominal scales; correspond to the range of an ordered qualitative variable. Interval (16)-more info than ordinal and nominal,; numbers assigned to equivalence classes have properties of distinctness and order and equal differences between numbers reflect equal magnitude differences between corresponding classes. Measurement procedure consists of defining a unit of measurement such as a calendar year or 1 o F(ONLY FAREINHEIT SCALE)and determining the number of units required to represent the difference between equivalence classes. Starting point or origin of an interval scale is arbitrarily
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