British Industrialization

British Industrialization - P olitics o o o o o o o o o o o...

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P  olitics o As people moved to cities, was known as urbanization o A country becomes urbanized when more people live in cities o Great Britain-good example. By 1914 had 80% of pop urban. o By this time, only one other country had achieved it o Soon many people married younger to increase income o Soon housing and sanitation depleted o Few cities had building codes o Houses were small and built in rows o There was always a reason to fear fire o Factories added to this problem o The government soon sought out ways to end this o The most pressing problem was sanitation o Many people simple threw garbage out the window o In the 1800s, the germ theory and iron pipe spurred them to action o They installed closed sewer line and improved garbage collection o Police and fire protection created safer cities o As city planning progressed, people set space out for parks o In New York City, Frederick Olmsted saw a need for  “a simple, broad, open space  of clean greenswards” o with the aid of Calvert Vaux, this would be New York’s city park o many secular social reformers believed that laissez-fair policies should be changed o British philosopher Jeremy Bentham promoted utilitarianism, the idea that society  should work for “the greatest happiness for the greatest number” of citizens
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o to Bentham, laws should be judged by usefulness and human happiness o to this end, he called for better o Laws, education, public health, and prisons o John Stuart Mill challenged strict view for laissez-faire economics o However Mill believed in individual freedom o in his work In Liberty mill stated that freedom of thought and discussion  promoted social progress and supported extending the vote to all adults o He believed in democracy, advocated for equal right with women o not everyone believed in capitalism        o some believed to end misery, meant getting rid of capitalism o they advocated socialism-the belief that the means of production should be owned  by the government o in this way, wealth could be distributed equally o some early advocate went and built cities based on sharing o among the first, Robert Own a wealthy welsh manufacturer o he believed that competition increased problems o this, he reasoned cooperation would make life better o in 1800 he set up New Lanark o in time he reconstructed a model industrial community o although he did not turn the textile mill over to the workers, he improved their  living and working condition o in 1825 Owen stopped managing New Lanark and bought New Harmony,Indiana o he tried to set up a cooperative community however they did not make any success o
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