STUDY GUIDE FOR CJ275

STUDY GUIDE FOR CJ275 - STUDY GUIDE FOR CJ275 1/22/2008...

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STUDY GUIDE FOR CJ275 22/01/2008 21:08:00 Characteristics of CJ System Discretion= Determines which people are affected by criminal sanctions.  These may be determined by departmental policies, situational pressures,  and the officers personal biases Sequential o 1. Ivestigation/Arrest  o 2. Bail  o 3. Perliniary Hearing/Present Charges o 4. Arraingment/ Formaly told of charges  and enter a plea o 5. Trial o 6. Presentence Report o 7. Sentence Filtering= Discretionary decisions o fpolice officers, prosecutors, defense  attorneys, and judse who may decided to arrest, ro dismiss charges, to  bargain for guilty pleas, and to otherwise conserve system resources by  FILTERING out cases prior to trial Resource Dependent= Be sensitive to pressures of the public and legislator.  Due Process Model o Goal- Protecting Liberty o Value- Liberty o Process- Adversarial o Decision Point- Court Room o Basis- Law o Defendants are presumed innocent, suspects rights are protected o Obstacle Course
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o 10% of cases in courts o Ideal model Crime Control Model o Goal= Repressing Crime o Value- Efficency o Process- Administrative o Decision Point- Police and Prosecutor Discretion o Basis- Discretion o Presumed guilty and if there is suspects guilt. They may drop case o Assembly Line o 90% of cases negotiated Wedding Cake Model o At the Top is Due Process o At Bottom is Crime Control o Closer to the top the more adversail Existence of Values and Politics in the definitions of crimes o Laws that define crimes o Legislatures write laws o Law is influenced by politics and falises, it can change o Defintion of crimes will change state to state, legislature and countries o Laws aren’t about morality
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Legitimacy of Courts In a general sense judiciary has no active role in policy making, while  however it’s decisions will effect public policy Alexander Hamilton  o His understanding was that judges would define the Constitution and  determine if laws were unconstitutional, thus defining the limits of  legislative power – and that enables judges to determine public policy Judges’ conceptions of judicial role limit the breadth of their decisions Federal Courts District Courts- o 94 districts divided into 12/13 geographic circuits o provides form for trials heard ny either a judge and a jury or a judge  along o three-judge district courts- hear cases in which an idividual  challeneges the constitunality of a state or federa statue by seeking  judical order preventing enforcement of the statue Cicuit Courts of Appeals o 3 judge panel o En Banc= hearings involve all of a courts judges in every ciruit except 
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STUDY GUIDE FOR CJ275 - STUDY GUIDE FOR CJ275 1/22/2008...

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