This preview shows pages 1–3. Sign up to view the full content.
This preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.View Full Document
Unformatted text preview: Chpt 10 - Language Phoneme sound Basic unit of sound Roughly corresponds to letters of alphabet 869 different phonemes in human speech Any language has about 40 80 phonemes / infants must learn which ones are in their languages Ex. Chat phonemes = ch, a, t. Changes in phonemes produce changes in meaning Consonant phonemes carry more info than vowel phonemes People who grow up learning one set of phonemes usually have difficulty pronouncing phonemes of another language Sign language has phoneme-like building blocks defined by hand shapes and movements Morpheme forming meaningful words Smallest unit of language that carries meaning Some morphemes are also phonemes ex. I and A Most morphemes are combinations of two or more phonemes Include prefixes and suffixes Ex. Undesirables = four morphemes (un desir able s) each adds to the words total meaning Grammar generative Generative grammar metal set of rules A code to translate between order of words and combination of thoughts Who did what to whom? System of rules (semantics and syntax) Pragmatics language in a social context Talking to and with someone Turn taking letting each other talk first thing baby learns Acknowledging the audience grandmas apple pie Emotional tone Intonation variations in emphasis, pitch, loudness, and timing Syntax rules for word order Ex. English vs. Spanish (the white house vs. la casa blanca) Need context to determine meaning They are hunting dogs dogs that seek animals or people who seek dogs Semantics rules for meaning Definition/attribution of a morpheme Tense, plural, general vs. specific (ex. Mother) Pidgin make-shift combo of 2 different languages Adult and adult of 2 different languages Practical tasks No grammar o No constant word order o No prefixes or suffixes o No tense Creole full complex language with grammar Children of pidgin parents make Creole Immigrant children Kanzi (bonobo or pygmy chimp) Stages of Language Development Birth CRYING (new born) Various cries are expressions of emotional state Larynx like a beavers 3-5 weeks or 1-4 months COOING Repetition of vowel sounds 4 months BABBLING Plays with sounds (Piagets circular reactions) Vowels and consonants Larynx has descended Created by LAD (all phonemes still recognizable) Unrelated to household language Deaf children babble with their hands Ex. Ah-goo 10 months JARGONING Babbling with intonation and pauses Keep phoneme discrimination only for their language Comprehension is ahead of production 12 months 2 years ONE WORD STAGE Household language / holophrases (one word with gestures that can convey a whole sentence worth of meaning) Objects, actions, modifiers, routines Knowledge of words increases rapidly...
View Full Document
This note was uploaded on 04/30/2008 for the course PSY 1305 taught by Professor Rowatt during the Spring '07 term at Baylor.
- Spring '07