{[ promptMessage ]}

Bookmark it

{[ promptMessage ]}

study guide exam 3

study guide exam 3 - Chpt 10 Language Phoneme sound Basic...

Info iconThis preview shows pages 1–3. Sign up to view the full content.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Chpt 10 - Language Phoneme – sound Basic unit of sound Roughly corresponds to letters of alphabet 869 different phonemes in human speech Any language has about 40 – 80 phonemes / infants must learn which ones are in their languages Ex. Chat – phonemes = ch, a, t. Changes in phonemes produce changes in meaning Consonant phonemes carry more info than vowel phonemes People who grow up learning one set of phonemes usually have difficulty pronouncing phonemes of another language Sign language has phoneme-like building blocks defined by hand shapes and movements Morpheme – forming meaningful words Smallest unit of language that carries meaning Some morphemes are also phonemes – ex. I and A Most morphemes are combinations of two or more phonemes Include prefixes and suffixes Ex. Undesirables = four morphemes (un – desir – able – s) each adds to the word’s total meaning Grammar – generative Generative grammar – metal set of rules A code to translate between order of words and combination of thoughts Who did what to whom? System of rules (semantics and syntax) Pragmatics – language in a social context Talking to and with someone Turn taking – letting each other talk – first thing baby learns Acknowledging the audience – grandma’s apple pie Emotional tone Intonation – variations in emphasis, pitch, loudness, and timing Syntax – rules for word order Ex. English vs. Spanish (the white house vs. la casa blanca) Need context to determine meaning They are hunting dogs – dogs that seek animals or people who seek dogs Semantics – rules for meaning Definition/attribution of a morpheme Tense, plural, general vs. specific (ex. Mother) Pidgin – make-shift combo of 2 different languages Adult and adult of 2 different languages Practical tasks No grammar
Background image of page 1

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
o No constant word order o No prefixes or suffixes o No tense Creole – full complex language with grammar Children of pidgin parents make Creole Immigrant children Kanzi (bonobo or pygmy chimp) Stages of Language Development Birth – CRYING (new born) Various cries are expressions of emotional state Larynx like a beavers 3-5 weeks or 1-4 months – COOING Repetition of vowel sounds 4 months – BABBLING Plays with sounds (Piaget’s circular reactions) Vowels and consonants Larynx has descended Created by LAD (all phonemes still recognizable) Unrelated to household language Deaf children babble with their hands Ex. Ah-goo 10 months – JARGONING Babbling with intonation and pauses Keep phoneme discrimination only for their language Comprehension is ahead of production 12 months – 2 years – ONE WORD STAGE Household language / holophrases (one word with gestures that can convey a whole sentence worth of meaning) Objects, actions, modifiers, routines Knowledge of words increases rapidly 18 – 24 months – TWO WORD STAGE
Background image of page 2
Image of page 3
This is the end of the preview. Sign up to access the rest of the document.

{[ snackBarMessage ]}