study guide exam 4

study guide exam 4 - Attachment Parenting Attachment an...

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Attachment – an emotional tie with another person; shown in young children by their seeking closeness to the caregiver and showing distress on separation. A relationship in which the infant gets: o Needs met consistently (continuity of care) o Synchronous stimulation (pg. 366) o Affection o Forms a “secure base for exploration” o Affects future development Harry Harlow’s monkey studies Surrogate mother experiments – monkeys preferred contact with the comfortable cloth mother, even while feeding from the nourishing wire mother. Konrad Lorenz Imprinting – the first moving thing that an animal sees, they will follow (ducks) Types (Ainsworth/Bowlby) Secure (65 – 70%) - Mother as secure base - In their mother’s presence the play comfortably (happily exploring their new environment) - When mother leaves, they are distressed - When she returns, they seek contact with her - Babies with mothers who were sensitive and responsive showed a secure attachment Insecure (anxious) Less likely to explore their surroundings; may even cling to mother When she leaves, they either cry loudly and remain upset or seem indifferent to their mother’s going and returning - 2 types Anxious/resistant - Parental style: inconsistent Anxious/avoidant - Parental style: unresponsive or overzealous Insensitive and unresponsive mothers had infants who were insecurely attached Causes (baby 7 parental) Behavior in the Strange Situation Test 1
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Assessed by (in-Mary Ainsworth’s Strange Situation Test): Exploratory behavior o Attachment figure serves as a secure base Stranger anxiety o Wary or fretful of stranger or outgoing o 8 – 10 months Separation Anxiety o Wary or fretful to separation, try to follow or maintain contact o 14 – 18 months Reactions to reunion o Positive, negative, mixed, ignore EVA – little girl in Mary’s test Stranger Situation Test Mary Ainsworth Studied attachment differences by observing mother-infant pairs at home during their first 6 months Later, she observed the 1-yr-old infants in a strange situation without their mothers. Babies with mothers who were sensitive and responsive showed a secure attachment Insensitive and unresponsive mothers had infants who were insecurely attached John Bowlby - Parenting Styles Dimensions – control/demandingness; warmth/affection High or low on either one Authoritarian - Imposes rules; highly restrictive; not warm - Expect obedience; rarely give reasons, “Because I said so!” - Power tactics (physical punishment) - High on control/demandingness / low on warmth/affection o Outcome: moody; unhappy; aimless - Best for worker society, army – obey the boss o (GOODNESS OF FIT idea) Authoritative - Set clear rules / enforce rules consistently - Explain reasons 2
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- Are responsive to child’s needs o (Discuss and allow exceptions) - High on both dimensions o Outcome: cheerful, responsible, achiever Permissive - Make few demands - Very high on warmth / low on demandingness
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study guide exam 4 - Attachment Parenting Attachment an...

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