AHS 2309 LECTURE 5b FABACEAE-NUTS - AHS 2309 OLERICULTURE...

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1 | P a g e : P r o f A b u k u t s a L e c t u r e 5 b f o r w e e k 4 1 6 t h F e b 2 0 1 5 AHS 2309: OLERICULTURE II LECTURE 5a: FABACEAE- NUTS Objective of the Lecture: At the end of this Lecture Learners should be able to describe the production of Nuts GROUNDNUT ( Arachis hypogaea ) - - ORIGIN, CLASSIFICATION AND HISTORY Originated from South America In the 16 th century, the groundnut was taken to West Africa. BOTANICAL DESCRIPTION An annual herb up to 60cm in height Lateral roots, advent roots from basal branches, Rhizobium nodules normally developed Leaves specially arranged, pinnate Flowers formed in axils of foliage leaves mainly from lower nodes, single or clusters Fruits Borne at the tip of elongating peg which is positively geotrophic The extension of the peg forces the ovary, protected by a cap of lignified cells into the soil to a depth of 2 7cm The mature fruit is oblong containing 1 4 seeds Seeds are cylindrical or ovoid.
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2 | P a g e : P r o f A b u k u t s a L e c t u r e 5 b f o r w e e k 4 1 6 t h F e b 2 0 1 5 NUTRITIONAL IMPORTANCE These are primarily a field crop, but boiled and salted mature but unripe nuts are very popular in local markets The leaves are sometimes added to soups The seeds are eaten raw roasted, steamed crushed as a flour or adding to soups and stews A non-drying oil is also extracted from seeds Seeds contain high levels of fat, 25 45%, Protein 15 23% and phosphorus 409mg/100g fwt ADAPTATION AND ENVIRONMENTAL REQUIREMENT Soils should be well drained, loose in texture and well supplied with Ca, K, P Organic content should be relatively high Soils which are high in clay content or which tend to form a crust or cap are unsuitable since it is essential that the fertilized flower/peg should be able to penetrate the soil readily
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