AHS 2309-Lecture 2-GRAMINEAE FAMILY - AHS 2309 OLERICULTURE...

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1 | P a g e : P r o f A b u k u t s a L e c t u r e 2 o f W e e k 1 2 6 t h J a n 2 0 1 5 . AHS 2309: OLERICULTURE II LECTURE 2 - GRAMINEAE (GRASS) FAMILY Objective of the Lecture: At the end of this Lecture Learners should be able to describe the production of vegetables in the Gramineae family GENERAL INTRODUCTION At the earliest level of domestication, it appears that kernel or grain size of corn or maize ( zea mays) was small (probably pop-corns) Later larger kernelled types of maize were developed. Currently grown maize races appear to differ from each other in the constitution of the endosperm The size of the kernel depends mainly upon the size of the endosperm Diagrammatic representation of grain of plants in the graminae family (Maize Kernel)
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2 | P a g e : P r o f A b u k u t s a L e c t u r e 2 o f W e e k 1 2 6 t h J a n 2 0 1 5 . The endosperm is the portion of the maize kernel surrounding the embryo and enclosed by the pericarp Colouration found in the endosperm varies from white,yellow to orange The aleurone the thin outer la yer o f the endosperm which may be colourless, purple, red,lemon yellow or brown The pericarp may be colourless, pink, red, yellow, brown or purple The aleurone and the pericarp may be patterned(strippled, speckeld, sriped or streaked) Although most commercial maize is either yellow or white much of the maize cultivated by American Indians are highly coloured Main types Of Maize o Pop corn- Zea mays var rostrata or praecox It is a mutation of field corn and has a very hard starch in the kernels which explodes when heated producing fluffy white pop corn. The ornamental corns belong to the pop-corn group o Dent corn- Zea mays var indentata - used for livestock feeds have rougher surface o Flint corn (hard)- Zea mays var indurate- corn most used for human foods o Sweet corn- Zea mays var saccharata or rugosa Sweet Corn ( Zea mays var. saccharata ) CLASSIFICATION, ORIGIN AND HISTORY Sweet Corn ( Zea mays var. saccharata ) is a member of the Graminae or Grass family. It is similar to field corn in physical and morphological structure It differs from the latter only by a recessive gene su (sugary) which replaces Su (starchy) of field corn The recessive gene prevents the conversion of some sugar into starch Sweet corn originated in the Western Hemisphere, possibly America It is thought to be a distinct species which was a food plant of the North American Indians It is also thought to be mutant from field corn which occurred round 1534 in Peruvian highlands It is a relatively new vegetable in many parts of the world.
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3 | P a g e : P r o f A b u k u t s a L e c t u r e 2 o f W e e k 1 2 6 t h J a n 2 0 1 5 .
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  • Spring '15
  • PROFESSOR MARY ABUKTSA
  • Maize, sweet corn, Gramineae, Prof Abu kutsa, Abu kutsa Lecture

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