Chapter 5_Sedimentary Rocks & Textures1

Chapter 5_Sedimentary Rocks & Textures1 - Sedimentary...

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Sedimentary Rocks Chapter 5
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Sedimentary Rocks Layered and stratified rocks formed at or near the earth's surface in response to weathering and erosion of existing igneous, metamorphic, and other sedimentary rocks. Sediments are transportation, deposited, and lithified by compaction and cementation. Some sedimentary rocks are formed by precipitation or evaporation of mineral rich solutions.
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Compaction of Sediments Sediments accumulate in layers forming thick deposits on land or in the sea. The weight of the overlying sediments compact these sediments into sedimentary rocks. Sedimentary rocks can be uplifted as a result of plate movements forming mountains.
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Crystallization from Dissolved Minerals Precipitation or evaporation from dissolved minerals occurs in areas where evaporation is higher than precipitation. As evaporation takes place, water is lost and the dissolved minerals form crystals which settle out. As evaporation continues, more crystals from and accumulate forming sedimentary rocks.
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Identification Important characteristic of sedimentary rocks are depositional features such as layering, bedding, fossils, etc. Sedimentary rocks cover 75% of the earth's surface but amount to only 5% of the outer (crust).
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The Formation of Sedimentary Rocks Diagenesis - process of sedimentary rock formation Erosion and/or weathering; Transportation; Deposition - Occurs when transport energy is no longer available; and Lithification – compaction/cementation; or Precipitation and/or evaporation.
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Clastic sedimentary rocks (from the Greek word klastos meaning broken ) are formed from the mechanical breakup, transportation, deposition, and compaction/cementation of other rocks (sandstone). Inorganic chemical sedimentary rocks are formed from the precipitation or growth from solutions such as seawater or groundwater (usually carbonates - calcite) or the result of minerals left behind from evaporation (halite, gypsum, anhydrite).
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This note was uploaded on 04/28/2008 for the course CE 200 taught by Professor Unknown during the Fall '07 term at University of Alabama at Birmingham.

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Chapter 5_Sedimentary Rocks & Textures1 - Sedimentary...

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