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Peloponnesian War study guide

Peloponnesian War study guide - What Peloponnesian War When...

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What: Peloponnesian War When: 431-404 BC Who: Athens vs. Sparta (Peloponnesian League) Why: The preeminent Athenian historian, Thucydides, proposes, in book one, section 23, of his History of the Peloponnesian War, that Sparta went to war with Athens "because they were afraid of the further growth of Athenian power, seeing, as they did, that the greater part of Hellas was under the control of Athens" [4] Indeed, the nearly fifty years of Greek history that preceded the outbreak of the Peloponnesian War had been marked by the development of Athens as a major power in the Mediterranean world. After defeating the Persian invasion of Greece in the year 480 BC, Athens led the coalition of Greek city-states that continued the Greco-Persian Wars, known as the Delian League, with attacks on Persian territories in the Aegean and Ionia. What ensued was a period, referred to as the Pentecontaetia (the name given by Thucydides), in which Athens increasingly came to be recognized as an Athenian Empire, [5] carrying out an aggressive war against Persia. By the middle of the century, the Persians had been driven from the Aegean and forced to cede control of a vast range of territories to Athens. At the same time, Athens greatly increased its own power; a number of its formerly independent allies were reduced, over the course of the century, to the status of tribute-paying subject states of the Delian
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