ch. 13 note - SOLIDS 1 2 3 4 5 6 LIQUIDS Have definite...

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SOLIDS LIQUIDS GASSES 1. Have definite  shape 1. Assume shape of  container 1. Fill containers  completely 2. Nearly  incompressible 2. Definite volume(slightly  compressible) 2. Are compressible 3. Higher density  than liquids 3. High density 3. Low density 4. Not fluid 4. fluid 4. fluid 5. Diffuse very  slowly through solids 5. Diffuse through other  liquids 5. Diffuse rapidly 6. Ordered  arrangements of  particles very close  together; only  vibrational motion 6. Disordered clusters of  particles close together;  random motion in 3D 6. Extremely disordered  particles with much empty  space between them; rapid,  random motion in 3D Kinetic-Molecular Description of Liquids and Solids Solidification and crystallization refer to the process in which a liquid changes to  a solid Crystallization refers to the formation of a very ordered solid material Intermolecular Attractions and Phase Changes Intermolecular forces     - forces BETWEEN individual particles Intramolecular forces     - covalent and ionic bonds WIITHIN compounds Ion-Ion Interaction     F=q + q - /d 2            (force of attraction) When oppositely charged ions are close together, the  denominator is small so the attractive force between them is large E=q + q - /d            (Energy of attraction) Dipole-Dipole Interactions     Permanent dipole-dipole interactions occur between polar covalent  molecules because of the attraction of the  δ + atoms of one molecule to the  δ atoms of another molecule Hydrogen Bonding    
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Strong hydrogen bonding occurs among polar covalent molecules  containing H and one of the three small, highly electronegative elements- F, O  or N Dispersion Forces     Weak attractive forces that are important only over extremely short  distances Polarizability increases with increasing numbers of electrons and  therefore with increasing sizes of molecules. Stronger for molecules that are larger or that have more electrons Molecules that are large or quite polarizable the total effect can be even  higher than dipole-dipole or hydrogen bonding.
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