ch. 13 notes

ch. 13 notes - SOLIDS 1. Have definite shape 2. Nearly...

Info iconThis preview shows pages 1–2. Sign up to view the full content.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
SOLIDS LIQUIDS GASSES 1. Have definite shape 1. Assume shape of container 1. Fill containers completely 1. Nearly incompressible 1. Definite volume(slightly compressible) 1. Are compressible 1. Higher density than liquids 1. High density 1. Low density 1. Not fluid 1. fluid 1. fluid 1. Diffuse very slowly through solids 1. Diffuse through other liquids 1. Diffuse rapidly 1. Ordered arrangements of particles very close together; only vibrational motion 1. Disordered clusters of particles close together; random motion in 3D 1. Extremely disordered particles with much empty space between them; rapid, random motion in 3D 1. Kinetic-Molecular Description of Liquids and Solids Solidification and crystallization refer to the process in which a liquid changes to a solid Crystallization refers to the formation of a very ordered solid material 2. Intermolecular Attractions and Phase Changes Intermolecular forces - forces BETWEEN individual particles Intramolecular forces - covalent and ionic bonds WIITHIN compounds Ion-Ion Interaction F=q + q - /d 2 (force of attraction) When oppositely charged ions are close together, the denominator is small so the attractive force between them is large E=q + q - /d (Energy of attraction) Dipole-Dipole Interactions Permanent dipole-dipole interactions occur between polar covalent molecules because of the attraction of the δ+ atoms of one molecule to the δ- atoms of another molecule Hydrogen Bonding Strong hydrogen bonding occurs among polar covalent molecules containing H and one of the three small, highly electronegative elements- F, O or N Dispersion Forces Weak attractive forces that are important only over extremely short distances Polarizability increases with increasing numbers of electrons and therefore with increasing sizes of molecules. Stronger for molecules that are larger or that have more electrons
Background image of page 1

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full DocumentRight Arrow Icon
Image of page 2
This is the end of the preview. Sign up to access the rest of the document.

Page1 / 4

ch. 13 notes - SOLIDS 1. Have definite shape 2. Nearly...

This preview shows document pages 1 - 2. Sign up to view the full document.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Ask a homework question - tutors are online