ch. 13 notes

ch. 13 notes - SOLIDS 1 Have definite shape 2 Nearly...

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SOLIDS LIQUIDS GASSES 1. Have definite shape 1. Assume shape of container 1. Fill containers completely 1. Nearly incompressible 1. Definite volume(slightly compressible) 1. Are compressible 1. Higher density than liquids 1. High density 1. Low density 1. Not fluid 1. fluid 1. fluid 1. Diffuse very slowly through solids 1. Diffuse through other liquids 1. Diffuse rapidly 1. Ordered arrangements of particles very close together; only vibrational motion 1. Disordered clusters of particles close together; random motion in 3D 1. Extremely disordered particles with much empty space between them; rapid, random motion in 3D 1. Kinetic-Molecular Description of Liquids and Solids Solidification and crystallization refer to the process in which a liquid changes to a solid Crystallization refers to the formation of a very ordered solid material 2. Intermolecular Attractions and Phase Changes Intermolecular forces - forces BETWEEN individual particles Intramolecular forces - covalent and ionic bonds WIITHIN compounds Ion-Ion Interaction F=q + q - /d 2 (force of attraction) When oppositely charged ions are close together, the denominator is small so the attractive force between them is large E=q + q - /d (Energy of attraction) Dipole-Dipole Interactions Permanent dipole-dipole interactions occur between polar covalent molecules because of the attraction of the δ+ atoms of one molecule to the δ- atoms of another molecule Hydrogen Bonding Strong hydrogen bonding occurs among polar covalent molecules containing H and one of the three small, highly electronegative elements- F, O or N Dispersion Forces Weak attractive forces that are important only over extremely short distances Polarizability increases with increasing numbers of electrons and therefore with increasing sizes of molecules. Stronger for molecules that are larger or that have more electrons
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This note was uploaded on 04/28/2008 for the course CHEM 1212 taught by Professor Suggs during the Spring '08 term at UGA.

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ch. 13 notes - SOLIDS 1 Have definite shape 2 Nearly...

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