Unit 1.1 Sociological Perspective - Chapter One Sociology...

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Chapter One Sociology: Systematic study of human society and social interaction Theoretical perspectives and research methods are applied Sociologists develop theories of how human behavior is shaped by group life and how, in return, group life is affected by individuals Focuses on external social factors Effects of groups, organizations, and social institutions on individuals and social life 1. Society: A large social grouping that shares the same geographical territory and is subject to the same political authority and dominant cultural expectations 2. Global Interdependence: A relationship in which the lives of all people everywhere are intertwined closely and any one nation’s problems are part of a larger global problem. Ex: environmental problems 3. Commonsense Knowledge: Guides ordinary conduct in everyday life. Many are actually myths . Myth: a popular but false notion that may be used to perpetuate certain beliefs or “theories” Theory: a set of logically interrelated statements that attempts to describe, explain, and predict social events. Sociological Imagination: The ability to see the relationship between individual experiences and the larger society Helps us understand the link between our personal experiences and the social contexts where it occurs 1. Personal Troubles: Private problems that affect individuals and the networks of people with whom they associate regularly. 2. Public Issues: Problems that affect large numbers of people and often require solutions at a societal level Importance of a Global Sociological Imagination High-income countries (industrial countries) Nations with highly industrialized economies, technologically advanced occupations, and high levels of national and personal income Have a high standard of living and a lower death rate Middle-income countries (developing countries) Nations with industrializing economies (particularly urban areas) and moderate levels of nationals and personal income Low-income countries (underdeveloped countries) Primarily agrarian nations with little industrialization and low levels of national and personal income People typically work in the land and are among the poorest in the world Social Construction:
Do not really indicate anything apart from the social meaning that people in a given society confer on them 1. Race : specifies groups of people distinguished by physical characteristics (ex: skin color) 2. Ethnicity : cultural heritage or identity of a group a. Based on factors such as language or country of origin 3. Class : relative location of a person or group within the larger society, based on wealth, power, prestige, etc.

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