Unit 2.7 Deviance and Crime - Deviance Any behavior belief...

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DevianceAny behavior, belief, or condition that violates significant social norms in the society or group where it occursBehavioral deviance:based on a person’s intentional or inadvertent actionsExpressing a radical or unusual belief system, possessing specific conditions or characteristics, or having a stigmaDeviance is relativeAn act becomes deviant when it is socially defined as oneVaries in degrees of seriousnessCrime:a behavior that violates criminal law and is punishable with fines, jail terms, and/or other negative sanctionsJuvenile delinquency: a violation of law or the commission of a status offense by young peopleSocial ControlSystematic practices that social groups develop in order to encourage conformity to norms, rules, and laws to discourage devianceInternal social control:takes place through the socialization processIndividuals internalizesocietal norms and values that prescribe how people should behave and then follow those norms and values in their everyday livesExternal social control:involves use of negative sanctions that proscribe certain behaviors and set forth the punishments for rule breakers and nonconformistsCriminology:systematic study of crime and the criminal justice systemFunctionalist Perspective of DevianceWhat causes deviance?DurkheimBelieved that deviance is rooted in societal factors like rapid social change and lack of social integration among peopleAnomie:a social condition where people experience a sense of futility because social norms are weak, absent, or conflictingAs bonding and community involvement (social integration) decreases, deviance and crime is increasedDeviance serves three important functions1.Clarifies rulesa.By punishing deviant behavior, society reaffirms its commitment to the rules and clarifies their meaning2.Unites a groupa.When seen as a threat to group solidarity and people unite in opposition to that behavior, their loyalties to society are reinforced3.Promotes social changea.Deviants may violate norms in order to get them changedi.Civil disobedience:lunch counter sit-ins and bus boycottsRobert Merton(1938-1968) - Strain TheoryPeople feel strain when they are exposed to culture goals that they are unable to obtain because they do not have access to culturally approved means of achieving those goalsFive ways people adapt to cultural goals and approved ways of achieving them:
1.Conformitya.When people accept culturally approved goals and pursue them through approved means2.Innovationa.When people accept society’s goals but adopt disapproved means of achieving them3.Ritualisma.When people give up on societal goals but still adhere to the socially approved means of achieving them4.Retreatisma.When people abandon both the approved goals and the approved means of achieving them5.Rebelliona.When people challenge both the approved goals and the approved means for achieving them

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