FINAL EXP EARTH REVIEW - Exploring Earth Final Exam Review...

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Exploring Earth Final Exam Review Fall 2007 EXPLORING EARTH: FINAL EXAM REVIEW TOPICS The Exploring Earth final exam will be cumulative. The exam will focus on topics discussed since the 2 nd midterm (50% of the exam). The remaining 50% of the exam will be divided between topics covered for the first midterm exam (25%) and topics covered for the second midterm exam (25%). This review sheet only includes topics discussed since the 2 nd midterm. For earlier topics refer to the review sheets for the 1 st and 2 nd midterm. Geologic Time and Age Dating Know the historical estimates of the age of the Earth and the basis for those estimates. o Estimates of the age of the Earth Theological (Earth about 6,000 years old) Generations in the bible Sediment accumulation (100,000,000 years old) Sediments deposited 1 mm a year. Cooling rates (~25,000,000 years old) Radiometric age dating (4,500,000,000 years old) Absolute age dating : quantitative Know the Laws used in relative age dating and how to use them in placing events in relative order. o Relative dating – rocks are placed in their proper sequence of formation - qualitative o Law of superposition – in an undeformed sequence of sedimentary rocks, each bed is older than the one above and younger than the one below o Principle of original horizontality – layers of sediment are generally deposited in a horizontal position o Principle of cross-cutting relationships – when a fault cuts through other rocks, or when magma intrudes and crystallizes, we can assume the fault or intrusion is younger than the rocks affected o Inclusions – are fragments of one rock unit that have been enclosed within another. The rock mass adjacent to the one containing the inclusions must have been there first in order to provide the rock fragments, therefore, the rocks mass containing inclusions is the younger of the two. o Unconformities – long period during which deposition ceased, erosion removed previously formed rocks and then deposition resumed. Show intervals of time that are not represented and missing from geologic record. Angular unconformity - consists of tilted or folded sedimentary rocks that are overlain by younger, more flat-lying strata and indicates that during the pause in deposition, a period of deformation and erosion occurred. Disconformity – strata on either side are parallel, little evidence of erosion, resembles ordinary bedding plane. Can tell from fossils and age dating Nonconformity – break separates older metamorphic or intrusive igneous rocks from younger sedimentary strata. Period of uplift and erosions of overlying rocks, once exposed to surface, igneous or metamorphic rocks weathered and eroded. Understand faunal succession and the concept of index fossils.
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FINAL EXP EARTH REVIEW - Exploring Earth Final Exam Review...

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