early childhood or adolescence, characterized by multiple physical (motor)
and at least one
vocal (phonic) tic.
The history of Tourette syndrome dates back to the early 1800s. Jean Marc Gaspard Itard,
a French doctor, reported the first case of the syndrome in 1825. He described the symptoms of
the 80-year-old woman, the Marquise de Dampierre,
an important woman of the Parisian
, who had suffered since the age of 7 from repetitive movements and vocalizations.
fact, there is an evidence to suggest that this condition was previously described by other
clinicians. Jakob Sprenger and Heinrich Kraemer in their book, published in 1498 and entitled
“Maleus maleficarum”, described a priest who had motor and vocal tics that were thought to be
the result of possession by the devil. An 1873 publication of the famous French physician
Armand Trousseau’s monograph also described several patients with motor and vocal tics.
Moreover, Hughlings-Jackson, an English neurologist, reported in Clinical Lectures and Reports
to the London Hospital a single case of the disorder in 1884. In 1885, de la Tourette, a French
physician, published "Study of a Nervous Affliction", his account of nine patients at a French
hospital who were afflicted with involuntary movements. And so, the "tic illness" came to be
known as the Gilles de la Tourette syndrome. Despite earlier reports of tics, it was Gilles de la
Tourette who clearly reported the many features of the condition and thus he set the stage for the
recognition of TS as a distinct neurological disorder.
Signs and Symptoms